Alphabet

Miscellaneous SGNODLOL August 8, 2016 0 0
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The alphabet is named after the Greek letters alpha and beta, joined alphabet. Alphabet represents a string of characters in a fixed order, which sounds are recorded from a language.

History

About 4,500 years ago invented writing in different places around the world. As more and more people began to act and sell all kinds of stuff they were little drawings carved into clay tablets to remember to whom you what was sold. The Sumerians were the first who started to write on clay tablets. The characters they used had something of nails away. Therefore, their writing called cuneiform.
In the beginning, those described in a different way than at present. Characters as we know them today did not exist. Instead of letters they wrote with drawings. A so ?? s little drawing meant an entire word. If you wanted to write the word ape signed're just a monkey. The Egyptians invented almost simultaneously writing. The ancient Egyptians also wrote with drawings, called hieroglyphs. Just like the script of the Sumerians is that pictograms. In China they beat on clay tablets and they drew from the outset on paper. Chinese script is very complicated. There are as many as 50,000 different Chinese characters.
Because it took a long time with all the characters before the text was finished, the drawings in the course of time became simpler. At one point there was a breakthrough, and the characters were not for a whole word, but a sound. You had so need to write a word. The first to use an alphabet with sound marks, the Phoenicians were. In 750 BC the Greeks took the writing of the Phoenicians on. Like their predecessors, the Greeks read the sentences from right to left. Later it turned out that reading from left to right was a lot easier. The Greeks added a number of letters to the Feniscische script, such as its C, W, F and Y. By trading with the Romans ended the Greek alphabet in Italy. Since it was further improved. Our alphabet is very similar to that of the Romans.
In the Middle Ages were very few people read or write. Monks in monasteries were practically the only one who wrote books. Because there was no printing press, everything had to be worked by hand. The monks wrote with a quill pen on parchment. Writing was a daunting task, because everyone thought it was important that the handwriting was beautiful. Monks were always all artworks from their books, therefore called time-consuming work sometimes drudgery. Johannes Gutenberg was in 1455 the art of printing. Books were now printed with letters of lead. Those letters were working as stamps. It was a great invention: books could be made faster and with several at once.

Decipherment of Egyptian writing

In ancient Egypt, few people read hieroglyphs. Toende ancient Egyptian culture was ingestor, there was kidney basket more about who knew what meant all images. So hieroglyphics remained a mystery for a long time.
The Egyptian hierogliefenschrift consists of approximately 700 different characters. Around 1800 the Frenchman Jean Francois Champollion managed to translate an ancient Egyptian text.
That text was a stone chiseled which French soldiers were in 1799 during an expedition of Napoleon to Egypt in the Rosette picture. At the famous Rosetta stone under the part containing a Greek translation hieroglyphs and demotic script. Jean Francois Champollion could unravel the hierogliefenschrift on the basis of the two. However, it has taken him 20 years.

Braille

Reading is a lot harder when you're blind. For blind people to really read, coined the Frenchman Louis Braille in 1824 braille. The letters of the Braille made up of small dots on the page. By moving the fingers over the beads can a blind man read what it says.

Cryptography

In war was made full use of cryptography. In World War II, the Germans used the Enigma to provide secret messages encoded. The Enigma is much like a typewriter. There are three revolving discs. These discs can be adjusted in several ways. IN this way can make the thing as much as 11 million letter combinations.
Throughout the war, the Germans thought that their secret messages could not be overheard. However, this was not so. Because already in 1940 received the Briten itself as ?? n cipher in hands. A Pole who worked on the Enigma Factory, had all items with smuggled out to give then to the British. Before the British codes were oncijferen, they had to do every day crack the code key. The code key is the way in which the disks were set. Just as was the receiving Enigma machine in exactly the same way as the set ran furthest you could crack the Enigma codes. And these institutions changed every day.
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