Approaches to Cognitive Psychology

Miscellaneous DenNorske August 8, 2016 1 0
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Cognitive psychology studies the mental processes in the human brain. There are several forms of this approach to study. This article discusses the four main approaches are set put: experimental psychology, computer models and cognitive neuroscience and psychology.

Cognitive processes

A definition of cognitive psychology
Cognitive Psychology is also referred to the psychology of the mental processes, as well as the study of understand and know. A more precise definition says that the study on which the brains process information.
Stages of cognitive processing
Information that is recorded by the senses is going through a stage of perception: analysis of the contents. This stage often leads to a recording mode of the received input, which is confronted with the learning and the memory capacity. To retrieve the input later uses retrieval.
Approaches to the study of cognition
There are basically four approaches to the study of cognitive psychology:
  • Experimental Psychology
  • Computer models: simulate brain functions
  • Cognitive neuroscience: record and analyze brain activity
  • Cognitive Neuropsychology: study of people who have brain injuries

  • Experimental Cognitive Psychology

    The first cognitive psychologists
    The scientific study of psychology began at the end of the 19th century with the construction of a psychological laboratory by Wilhelm Wundt. That research was done on perception and early studies of visual illusions.
    Ebbinghaus in 1885 presented a study about memory. In 1890 James published the book Principles of Psychology which he explained a number of theories, including that of the distinction between the long and short term memory.
    The rise and fall of behaviorism
    Behaviorism just focused on externally observable behavior. Watson said that we needed to study only a stimulus and subsequent response. Rats were a popular research object because they have less life experience than men and thus are easier to investigate.
    Gestalt theory and schedule
    Gestalt psychology realized that could be achieved for a proper understanding of human cognition by studying the underlying mental processes.
    Gestalt psychology suggested that we ourselves give meaning to sensory input with our knowledge and experience. The whole is more than the sum of its parts. The perception of a character depends on the ?? Prägnanz ??, the meaningful information that can be derived most easily from the figure.
    Schema theory was first proposed by Bartlett in 1932. A diagram provides a plausible explanation for the ability to give meaning to perceptual input. It compares this new input with previously experienced input. Gestalt psychology implies that input is changed ?? s possible to fit into our schedule and that perception differs per person.
    Top-down and bottom-up processing
    Neisser developed two main types of processing input:
  • Top-down: generation of Scheme ?? s by higher cortical structures which are sent by the nervous system to be compared with the incoming stimulus. Also called schema-driven and conceptually driven.
  • Bottom-up: the sensory organs send input to the higher cortical structures. Also known stimulusgedreven or called data-driven.

  • Computer models

    Around 1950, the computer was introduced, which has had a major impact on the researchers of that time. Feature detectors ?? ?? were introduced, meaning that the person has a mental mechanism which acts as mini schedules ?? s to be recognized among other structures.
    The limited capacity processor model
    Broadbent made several inquiries into widespread attention, which showed that people find it difficult to pay attention to two inputs simultaneously. The brains were compared to a kind of bottleneck. The narrower the neck, the less information after selection. This is called selective attention.

    Cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology

    Cognitive neuroscience is concerned with the relationship between brain function and cognition. Cognitive Neuropsychology adheres also working on the underlying brain mechanisms by studying people with brain injuries.
    Operation brain:
    • Cerebral cortex is involved in higher cognitive processes
    • The different lobes are strongly connected
    • The lobes include various specific functions
    • Right-handed people often have a dominant left hemisphere and vice versa
    • The left hemisphere is usually associated with language and speech
    • The right hemisphere is typically associated with the processing of non-verbal input, such as patterns or faces
    • The front half of the brains is mainly concerned with output
    • The rear half of the brains is principally engaged in processing input
    • The frontal lobes are involved in the motor section
    • Broca's area is involved in the production of speech
    • The frontal cortex is mainly concerned with central executive systems involve any conscious mental processes
    • The occipital lobes are involved in the processing of visual input
    • The parietal lobes are involved in perception. They contain the somatic sensory cortex which receives tactile input. This is especially important in the perception of pain.
    • The temporal lobes are primarily involved with memory. In addition, they are concerned with the auditory input
    • Wernicke's area located in the temporal lobes in the left hemisphere and is a type of language center, which deals with memory and speech language comprehension

    Information Storage in the brains
    Had developed a plausible theory about the neural basis of information storage. He stated that memories are created by new connections between neurons. These neurons can be activated by neurotransmitters, chemical substances, which can be transmitted between the gaps which separate the neurons, these are referred to as synapses. Had stated that when two adjacent neurons also fired the connection between them is strengthened. A synapse that is often used can be more easily used in the future. This mechanism ensures that there is a kind of network built up between neurons, which represent a specific pattern of input. This cell assembly is ?? ?? mentioned.
    This theory may explain why certain thoughts and memories are associated. The difference between the long-term and short-term memory may also be interpreted with this, many compounds used wear out as it were, in the system. The long-term memory is sometimes seen as a permanent change in the synapses. The term ?? long-term potentiation ?? is meant that a neuron can be more easily activated when it has been frequently used. Animals that are raised in a stimulating environment appear to have more synaptic connections than animals raised in an environment with little stimulation. Short-term memory seems to be related to the strengthening of existing synaptic connections. Long-term memory seems to be related to the growth of new synaptic connections among neurons.

    Unconscious and automatic processing

    Automatic and controlled processing
    A distinction is made between controlled and unconscious cognitive processes. Controlled processes have a lower capacity because they require more attention and thus energy. Unconscious processes are often not voluntary. Many processes are automatically much exercise. Syrup demonstrated for the first time the automatic processing of words. He compare the average rate at which they read out words. One half of the words consisted of color names, said word corresponding to the color. The other half consisted of color names in which the word corresponding to a different color. It has been found that people words that correspond to the color name to be averaged more rapidly read out.
    Awareness
    Consciousness is seen as discover the latest and explain part of psychology. With ?? blind sight ?? is meant that the phenomenon occurs in people who have brain damage in the occipital lobe. The stimuli are then detected, but not consciously. People with autism should have a lack of understanding that other people also mental processes. From EEG research by Wegner and Wheatley shows that consciousness follows only after the decision to do something. Decisions thus seem to be unconsciously.
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