The lowering of elevated cholesterol levels is an important element in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular disease, a decrease in the cholesterol level by 10% gives, depending on the age, a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease by 30% to 50 ® %.
The bad cholesterol, in particular LDL-cholesterol is associated with the development of atherosclerosis. A reduction in LDL cholesterol of 1 mmol per liter reduces the risk of coronary heart disease by about 25% and the risk of stroke by approximately 17%. The ratio between the atherogenic LDL-cholesterol and the protective HDL cholesterol provides more information for the determination of the risk. Also, the triglyceride content plays a role in the risk of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, it is good to keep blood pressure and blood sugar levels in the eye: high blood pressure and diabetes are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In Belgium, 70% of adults have high cholesterol. Less than 10% of it is thereof. To a value of 5 mmol / l is a good cholesterol. In a highly elevated cholesterol levels above 8 mmol / I is usually started directly with cholesterol inhibitors, such as statins, which ensure a reduction of cholesterol levels by 25 to 45% and triglycerides up to 30%. At a slightly elevated cholesterol levels can lose weight, healthy diet, rich in fruit, vegetables, fiber and restricted in fat and saturated fat increase cholesterol levels after several months. Dietary supplements can also help reduce cholesterol levels. The cholesterol level decreases due to use of fish oil did not significantly, soy indicates a reduction of about 5%, and green tea capsules reduce cholesterol levels by 10%.
The most effective measure to lower elevated cholesterol levels is the slowing down of its own cholesterol production in the liver. This works better than just a diet, because the major part of the total cholesterol does not come from the power supply, but is produced in the liver. Limiting the intake of cholesterol through the diet may be sufficient at a slightly elevated blood levels of cholesterol. When medications are prescribed greatly increased cholesterol blood levels, which inhibit the production of cholesterol. Statins give hand side, on the other hand they give the highest reduction in cholesterol levels.
Several supplements may help lower cholesterol levels. In most cases, these only have influence on one of the blood lipids, and the effect is mild. Thus, for example, niacin is effective for the lowering of triglyceride levels and the effect on the LDL-cholesterol less. Garlic has besides a lowering effect on triglycerides, while a lowering effect on the total cholesterol, but virtually no effect on the LDL.
A supplement consisting of a combination of citrusflavonen
and vitamin E from palm oil has a beneficial effect on the entire profile of blood lipids. Research has shown that this combination can give a considerable reduction of elevated levels of cholesterol and triglycerides.
The shell of edible orange and mandarin varieties contain a specific type of flavonoids, including tangeretin and nobiletin. These are so-called polymethoxyflavonen, of which cholesterol-reducing properties have been demonstrated. The lowering effect is to focus on the bad LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. PMFs reduce the amount of a lipoprotein in the LDL which promotes the formation of arteriosclerosis. Especially the tangeretin has this effect.
LDL cholesterol is composed of 90% apoliprotein B. Apo-B is made for a significant proportion of triglycerides. Tangeretin inhibits the enzyme that is required for the synthesis of triglycerides and thereby also inhibits the production of apo-B. Moreover, tangeretin also stimulates the breakdown of triglycerides, which occurs in the liver. In addition, the formation of apo-B by tangeretin counteracted via inhibition of the transport of triglycerides to form new apo-B. Nobiletin also reduces the content of LDL-cholesterol. Furthermore, it is of nobiletin known to inhibit a critical step in the process of atherosclerosis leading to plaque formation in the vascular wall. Nobiletin namely, inhibits the formation of foam cells by oxidized LDL-cholesterol. Tangeretin and nobiletin are both valuable antioxidants, which is favorable for the reduction of the oxidation of cholesterol. Oxidized LDL cholesterol promotes the process of atherosclerosis. In addition to a cholesterol-lowering effect PMFs have another beneficial effect, which contributes to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Tangeretin and nobiletin have strong anti-inflammatory properties. Chronic inflammatory responses play a role in atherosclerosis.
Palm oil is rich in tocotrienols, some forms of vitamin E. Vitamin E is a collective term for four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. Tocotrienols, in particular, gamma and delta-tocotrienol, have a cholesterol lowering effect. Tocotrienols inhibit the synthesis of cholesterol in the liver. This is done by speeding up the degradation of the enzyme that is involved in the production of cholesterol. Drugs that inhibit cholesterol synthesis exhibit are direct inhibitors of HMGCoA reductase and may be side effects associated with them. Tocotrienols, which work in a different, less drastic way, would not have these side effects.
In a double-blind study, were given to 20 subjects with high levels of cholesterol for four weeks a dietary supplement containing the combination of citrus-PMFs with tocotrienols from palm oil. At the start of the study, all participants had elevated levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. At twenty participants after four weeks to see a decrease in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The ratio of LDL and HDL increased by 19 to 24%. At ten participants while also the apo-B-content was measured, this fell by 20.9%.
In a larger, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of twelve weeks, the total cholesterol levels decreased by 30%, LDL by 27% and triglycerides by 34%. HDL levels increased slightly by 4% and the LDL / HDL ratio improved by 29%. In the placebo group, there was a slight increase in the levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides.
The results of these studies with the combination of citrusflavonen and tocotrienols from palm oil are promising, because they come close to what can be achieved with the drugs that inhibit the production of cholesterol. Statins lower cholesterol levels by 25 to 45%, and reduce the level of triglycerides by 10-30%. Of statins are known to lower the levels of coenzyme Q10, which in part may explain the effects on skeletal muscles and heart.