Before World War II, many European countries had several colonies. After the war, however, this changed and the colonies became independent. This did not happen from one day to another. It is often accompanied by problems and difficulties.
In this article, the following issues will be discussed:
What is the impact of World War II and the Cold War, the decolonization?
What caused poverty and instability after decolonization?
How far are former colonies really independent?
The world before the Second World War consisted of great empires. These empires had often colonies that were to be found in many parts of the globe. However, there was a growing pressure to put an end to having colonies. After World War II, this happened too. During the war, many colonies occupied by Japan. When the Japanese were defeated in 1945, the wealthy were trying to claim back their colonies, but often had little success. The residents of the countries fought back and eventually got independence. The countries that used the Marshall Plan, were also put the US under pressure to let the colonies. Furthermore, many residents of the colonies had served during World War II and they saw how it could. They wanted the same freedom and riches as Europeans. European countries had become poor because of the war. Having a great empire, was very expensive. Further, the pressure of the USA was, USSR, and the UN to lift the colonies, large.
The first countries that made themselves free from their mother countries were Asian countries. After India's independence, followed by many others. African countries followed much later. This had a number of reasons. The nationalist movements in African countries were not as convincing as those in Asian countries. Furthermore yielded African colonies more than Asian and they were not attacked by Japan. The countries that became independent, were helped by the USA or the USSR. These superpowers would namely like that the new countries adhered to their ideology.
With the independence of their motherland, the problems in the colonies were not resolved. Lack of leadership experience led to chaos. Furthermore, the countries were poor. This means that countries once loans were concluded with eg the USA. Then they got further and further into debt. There was also taught them that European values and standards were good. This they wanted to have, that is why they tried to follow Europe. However, this meant that they always steps behind. Another problem was disunity in the country. In many countries attended different tribes or religious groups. Everyone wanted to have power though. This caused conflict. It provided, among other things, that as soon as India was split in two. A Hindu India and Islamic Pakistan. It also occurred that came to live several nations in a state. This is still visible in Israel, among others.
Although the new countries formally politically independent, they are certainly not seen this economically. The countries have large debts to other powers such as America. The debts will make it difficult for countries to become economically independent. The more loans they need, the harder it is to achieve true independence.