Exercise Physiology; specificity of training

Science dukehuge August 8, 2016 0 0
To set a good training together. A good training schedule is compiled on training principles. This training principles are: reversibility, overload, law of diminishing returns, individuality and specificity. Specificity means the training as far as possible similar as possible to the game. When account is taken of specificity within a training, it is in view of energy which is the most important within the game, which tissues are most subjected to stress in a game and how the internal specificity of the movement is. Very specific training is not always possible.

The type of energy is specifically trained

Both at rest and during sport, movement and effort requires energy. All of these energy that the body needs, is ultimately delivered in the form of adenosine triphosphate. When splitting of ATP to adenosine diphosphate and phosphate releases energy used by the muscles to contract.
The body can make ATP in various ways. There is a small amount of ATP and creatine phosphate stored in the muscles. These so-called phosphate stock is approached to provide energy for short-term intensive physical exertion, for example in power lifting, sprinting and bodybuilding. In addition to the phosphate which is broken down without oxygen can also be broken down glucose without oxygen to produce ATP. This process is called glycolysis and lactate occurs in this process. This energy is used for example when running 400m and 1500m speed skating. Glucose can also be degraded just as fat with oxygen to produce ATP. Especially in endurance sports is the aerobic energy system is important.
To get better in a particular sport the energy system must be trained what is most often used during matches. A marathon runner must train the aerobic energy systems and a sprinter should train the anaerobic energy systems.

Training Adjustment are location-bound

Training Adaptations are location-specific. This means that the training adjustments occur in those parts of the body that are trained. An athlete who cycles a lot will therefore receive training adaptations in the muscles and bones of the leg, but not the arms. When you train for a specific race it is important to look closely at the tissues that are loaded during a match. These tissues should also be charged during a workout.

Internal specificity of the movement

Internal specificity of the movement is to say, that happens to the control of the muscles by the nervous system in a certain way. Under control of the muscles not only understand which muscles to contract during movement, but also in what order and with what power and speed. When this force and speed at which the muscles to contract, it is also important how quickly must be built up, and this force has to be reduced again.
To be good at a particular sport must be some movement during a match of interest is very much to be done in a proper manner during technical training. It often takes many years before an athlete has built a very good technique. An athlete with a pretty effective technique is all the energy is released using very efficient. There will minimize energy lost to the steering and adjustment of the movement. One effect of this is that the athlete is fatigued less quickly.

External specificity of the movement

External specificity of the movement is to say, that the movement during a workout is very similar to the motion during a match. External and internal specificity may have very many similarities but also many differences. For example, a squat looks much like a bicycle motion. On a bicycle movement, however, the leg muscles do not attract any time eccentric together, even though this is necessary in a squat.


Within a period of training often does not succeed to train the entire training period very specific. For a complete training period to train specifically, has some drawbacks. The injury risk may be higher in very specific training. For example, performing a full 100m sprint for a 100m sprinter has a high risk for contracting a muscle tear in it. In addition, the training volume may be too low if you want to train specifically. A ski-jumper, who always quite a ramp must, reached a low training volume. The athlete will also have to have a certain load before he can train them specifically. Finally, it is practically not always possible to train specific. For example, there is not a year of snow for skiing.