In the 15th century began in Italy the style period ?? ?? Renaissance, the rebirth, it was a revival of the period before the Middle Ages. There was again strong interest in Greek and Roman culture. Other European countries followed later, from about 1500 in France and in the mid-16th century in the Netherlands. A characteristic of the Renaissance include the rich ornamentation on furniture with sculpture and carving.
Two types of chairs that were frequent during the Renaissance in Italy, the folding chair and the Sgabello ?? ?? or footstool. The folding chair ?? Dante chair ?? and later also Dagobert ?? ?? called, is derived from the Roman Curulis ?? ??. Only the Renaissance folding seat can not be folded because the crossed legs are firmly put. The backrest is low and often of leather. A Sgabello stands on legs or two cheeks and came with or without backrest.
The throne or seat of honor meant for the householder, had in the Gothic period a heaven or canopy, in the Renaissance disappears. During the high-Renaissance came in place of the throne armchairs longer in use, eg. The ?? ?? caquetoire. The armchairs exhibit differ from country to country but generally have a rectangular back support, a square or polygonal seat and twisted narrow legs which are connected to each other by straight sports. The armrests walk quite straight and end in voluutvorm. Some armchairs had a seat in leather or velvet.
Toog cabinet, photo: Firefly
A still widely used and important storage unit in this period the coffin. Unless a closet coffin was also used as seating and table. Cabinets that were in the Gothic emerge as the buffet, the bahut and delete beautify remained in use in the Renaissance but got other embellishments.
In addition, there emerged units with two floors. The lower and the upper part each had two doors, under the lower part were two loading and ball feet. Thus came in the early 17th century in the Netherlands Zeeland closet ?? ??, wide but not very high cabinet, wall unit with two small doors, the base unit with two large doors. The closet was decorated with pieces of ebony or rosewood and door panels with geometric patterns. Both doors are surrounded by Caryatids and lion heads. In the second quarter of the 17th century the Dutch cabinet ?? ?? and ?? ?? Picture Cabinet, these resemble the Zeeland cabinet but were higher.
The Cabinet Toog ?? ?? or ?? Utrecht closet ?? had two big doors. These doors are framed with a curved edge which runs at the top. Like the Zeeland cabinet Toog the cabinet was often decorated with pieces of ebony or rosewood carvings and lion heads. The cabinet had in front two who were mostly bun feet stained black. ?? The Frisian closet ?? Keeftkast ?? or ?? and the ?? Columns cabinet ?? are similar cabinets. In this type of closet doors are surrounded by fluted columns.
Italian cheek table, photo: Wikimedia Commons
Until the 15th century they mostly used trestle tables that could be easily moved. After that, there were also set tables, eg., The Wang Table ?? ??, a small table with two sculpted cheeks, which are connected to each other through a twisted or straight rule. In the high-Renaissance control the cheeks on the underside in the form of claws. Most cheek tables who had served as a dining table under the tabletop two extra blades. Other tables, such as the draw-leaf table or column table had four, six, eight, or nine turned legs in the form of pillars. In the Netherlands since the beginning of the 17th century also the balpoottafel ?? ?? more and more, a trait table with vase-shaped legs. The legs are connected to each other by lines.
As in the Middle Ages were beds in the living room, in an alcove as the bedstead or against a wall, such as a crib or canopy. The canopy bed sometimes stood on a dais, this is a stage or platform. A four poster bed had a high headboard and low footboard. Further, the bed was covered with a canopy supported on slender columns and balusters. Later in the Renaissance sky beds were no longer against a wall, but in the middle of the space.
Detail of Zeeland cabinet, photo: Firefly
Intarsia and appliqué
The technique to decorate a piece of furniture with wood or other materials intarsia ?? ?? or ?? marquetry ?? mentioned. This technique was already known in antiquity but was rediscovered in Italy during the Renaissance. It was particularly in there but also applied to furniture in Germany. In the Netherlands, was used more frequently another technique namely ?? appliqué ??, the sizing a unit with other woods. In particular mountain furniture daubed it with a few pieces of rosewood or ebony.
Sculpture and carving
Typical Renaissance ornaments are stylized acanthus leaves, tendrils, palmettes and later flowers, garlands and fruits.
When the back seats and rules include richly carved with acanthus leaves, lion and claws, rosettes and geometric motifs.
The panels of a coffin were sometimes painted or decorated with inlays or carvings.
Cabinets are leaping ahead cornices, including sculpture in the form of figures, Caryatids, remixing, columns and lion heads.
The Renaissance lasted until about 1650 and then went slowly over the next period style, the Baroque.
Furniture Style: Renaissance