Gas lamps for the home

Science CobaltWarrior1000 December 9, 2016 0 16
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At Gaslight think people tend to atmospheric streetlights. However, for indoor use, there have been many types of gas lamps. These were all fabricated from the beginning of the nineteenth century, though it took a while before they became really popular. The secret of a good gas lamp was in fact decided to make the right burner and there is need to look for a while. In addition, inventors were sometimes confronted with new tasks, such as adjusting burners on the mantle or on the idea of ​​a downward shining lamp. Hence, the history of the gas lamp is a history of available burners. Article arrangement
  • Brief history gaslight
  • Gas lamps for the home
  • Burners for gas lamps to ± 1870
  • Material of gas burners
  • Push and balloon glasses
  • New types of gas lamps from ± 1870
  • Down lamps without seeming mantle
  • Down lamps shining mantle
  • Electric flame ignitors
  • Daily use
  • Gas Meters
  • Gaskronen
  • Use gas lamps in the twentieth century

Brief history gaslight

Gaslight was invented at the end of the 18th century. During the first two decades of the 19th century there were applications. A number of cities went example on street lighting by gas and came first gas lamps and chandeliers for indoor use. Gas, however, was an expensive fuel and thus something that only the wealthy upper class could afford. Only in the second half of the 19th century, gas lighting more widely used.
Around 1880, however, one in five households connected to the gas network. Then, when the coin meter, and the mantle were introduced, the price dropped significantly. Gas lighting was up to fifteen times cheaper! This made it extremely popular around 1900. Until about 1920 got many people from kerosene lamps on the so-called 'gasgloeilicht.
Gaslight brought an important innovation with it because it was the first fuel was distributed via a pipeline. In addition, there was a closed system: the gas was generated in a special gas plant and from there transmitted via the lines. One place was so willing and able to build such a system of plant and pipelines to provide gas. That meant it was initially only applied in big cities and later also put small and medium-sized cities. The countryside would never have gas lighting.
Read more about the history of the gaslight.

Gas lamps for the home

Until the mid-19th century gas lamps were hardly used in homes. Except there was gaslight street lamps in factories, public buildings and other large spaces. There were various reasons:
  • Gas was too expensive for almost everyone.
  • Lamps gave off too much heat, which in smaller spaces soon led to a stuffy atmosphere.
  • There sulfur and nitrogen was released that was bad for health, but also demolishes the furniture.
  • There was knowledge of necessary matters in order to regulate the gas supply well.
  • Gas flames were very unstable because of water in the gas line. This had had a bad effect on gas

The problem with water in the gas line was finally solved by pipes henceforth to lay at an angle, so that the water could accumulate in one place. The other problems were solved more slowly, but in the second half of the 19th will nevertheless increasing gas lamps for the home available ..

Burners for gas lamps to ± 1870

The most important part of a lamp which operates with the burner flame is light. The burner determines how large the light output of a lamp is final. The function of the burner is to ensure that the correct amount of fuel is led to the lamp and that there are as much as possible of oxygen or air at the flame may come. Will achieve this maximum capacity.
In the early nineteenth century there were several types of burners for oil lamps, but they were not suitable for gas lamps. Therefore must get new burners. Soon inventors devised a whole range of possibilities.
There were among others ééngaatsbranders within this framework, three burners going and slit burners. These burners gave open flames, some free carbon does burn up carbon dioxide. That gave a lot of light. The following types are commonly used:
Alleardo Villa - 'Gas Aerogeno' 1902 Argandbranders for gas lamps
These were inspired by the Argandbranders that were used in oil and kerosene lamps, but were adapted by gaslight. In a Argandbrander is made in place of a pit using a flat piece of woven cotton, which was placed between two copper tubes in a cylinder. As a result, the oxygen supply to the flame is optimal.
Moreover, the gas for the burner Argan had a hollow copper or porcelain ring which was stood at the top provided with a quantity of holes and from below on a bifurcated tube. Due to the high degree of zuurtsoftoevoer which brought about this, there was a large light output.
The Argandbrander was known as by far the most effective burner, but due to the large amount of holes did get more gas is consumed than other burners. He was not so economical.
Later came the Dumas-burner on the market, named after its inventor. That was a Argandbrander in which the holes had been replaced by a slot.
Burners slit.
The slit burner was conceived in 1805 and is also called vleermuis- or dovetail burner. The slit burner is a tube that has been closed from above, but there is a thin slit in order to let the gas through. The shape of the upper portion of the tube could still make quite a difference for the light output. The best result gave an elliptical arched shape.
Also, the shape of the gap was of interest. It was better off the gap to be physically contiguous with a circular shape than with straight lines. Otherwise, the gas rose up horizontally, while the burner was vertically. As a result, a portion of the gas not burnt to give a flame with odd peaks.
Hole Burners
Generally worked burners with two or three holes in it more valid than slit burners. In fact, there were numerous small hole burners on the market, but were very well-known two types:
  • The roosters track burner. This was a tube which was sealed from above and provided with three oblique holes.
  • The hanenkambrander. Here is the end of the tube was flattened and provided with a row of holes.

Material of gas burners

For a long time the burners were made of steel or copper. In the 60s of the 19th century, however, got more and more on soapstone, especially for crevice and hole burners. That was because copper and steel actually too good conduct for a gas lamp. Because all gas lamps gave off so much heat, it was not convenient to worsen unnecessarily. Therefore soapstone was better suited.

Push and balloon glasses

The open flame that burned in gas lamps, was susceptible to drafts, so that the light flickered a little restless. Adding tensile or balloon glasses to the lamp, this could be drastically reduced. Hence, most gas lamps, like oil or kerosene lamps, such glasses were provided.
That did not prevent gas lamps over time were smoking. The user had to just adjust the gas with a rotary regulator.

New types of gas lamps from ± 1870

In connection with the above-mentioned disadvantages of the gas lamp of one continued to search for improvements. In addition, they still returned to the search for better burners. Problems such as the heat and the gases were there anyway to fix the best.
Intensive Burner
Initially, they came up with a new type of burner, the so-called "intensive burner. This heated the air in the burner, so it was regenerated, or was made usable again. That meant that the lamp no longer gave off so much heat.
Regenerative lamp
In 1879 Friedrich Siemens introduced the first 'regenerative lamp. Here, the air was preheated in a "regenerator," which was attached under the outlet opening of the burner. That brought greater light output plus the heat was dissipated partially.
Auerbrander
Carl Auer von Welsbach, the inventor of the mantle and expert in lighting technology, was not afraid to also come up with a burner in the mantle. That was the Auerbrander. That was a Bunsen burner in which a mixture of oxygen and coal gas was burned in a blue, non-luminous flame. This flame roette not, so that the mantle could be made without any problems to incandescence.
The first Auerbrander for standing light had no controller, which also would not have been necessary for a constant gas pressure. Unfortunately, the gas pressure in many lines were not perfect, so later Auerbranders still had a regulating device.

Down lamps without seeming mantle

Lamps with the burners described above all have an upwardly directed flame. That was until well into the 19th century usual, even for hanging lamps. No one had ever thought about a reverse system. That changed when the gas lamp at the end of the century became entangled in a competition with the light bulb. That could shine down smoothly, which had two advantages:
  • He gave no or significantly less foreshadow.
  • The space under the lamp was lit up much better.

Invertbranders
In order to enable reversing of gas lamps, there was again a new type of burner, namely, the 'inverted burner "or" invertbrander'. They were also known as Wenhamlampen.
In these burners was a downward gas as possible, which also gave a focused flame downhill. Lamps with such a burner had a metal funnel on the ceiling. Unfortunately, they were at again especially suitable for illuminating large spaces because they really spoil the atmosphere.
Some invertbranders however were not an attack on the environment in a space, but proved just use it to refresh the air. To this end, additional built-in mechanisms in these lamps, in order to support the ventilation.
Inverted regenerative lamp
The Goebels German eventually found the inverted regenerative lamp, which he put together the advantages of a invertbrander and regenerative lamp. This surpassed all others in brightness.
Too bad it could not be as good enough. By the time the invertbrander was established, gas lamps were already fitted with incandescent gas mantles and who had problems with the downward flow.
Poster for mantles, 1896

Down lamps shining mantle

Mantles could not withstand the downward flame for reasons which are easy to guess: it was scorched. So there was a new mantle be developed where we could stop.
Apart from that, however, had to be avoided that the mixing pipe in which air and gas were mixed overheated. The mixing ratio between air and gas else would ever change, which resulted in an unstable flame. The solution was a system in which the supply of gas and oxygen could take place separately.
Finally, the firm Ehrich and Graetz from Berlin came up with the 'Graetzbrander', in which the supply of gas and air was well arranged.

Electric flame ignitors

The fight with the bulb not only provided gas lamps shining down on. There had to be something that could compete with the oh-so-convenient switch to a bulb could be affected. That was the electric flame igniter. In 1887 Ernst patented Née first such igniter.
In 1897 lamp vendor Ludwig Loewe from Berlin brought a self-acting detonator on the market. This is a sponge of platinum was introduced into the gas mixture. If the gas was turned on the gas flowing inside made this sponge glow until he was furious. If there is a aansteekvlammetje woke kindled the whole immediately.

Daily use

If the gas supply to the burners does not go well, it caused a troublesome noise, "as it was called in the 19th century. That could only be avoided if users were able to regulate the gas manually. Before that, though needed some knowledge. The user must be familiar with the regulation of the individual burners. He needed them to light, extinguish and maintained. Otherwise, it was nothing.
One could burners besides just the best blow. With oil lamps extinguished one burner also from there to stabbing a needle or pin through it. However soapstone crumbled as they did, thus opening up the gas was too high, which in turn led to a flickering flame.
Bedrooms, bathrooms, toilets, stairs, cellars and larders could not be lit by gas lamps, because the fumes caused too much inconvenience and danger.
In existing houses the piping was often in sight. Thick iron pipes were mounted on the walls. If possible, employment in boards were milled to lay in the pipes. These were then covered with strips of zinc.
In new houses could be stashed pipework better.

Gas Meters

To arrange payment for gas transit had to come to gas meters. There have been over time of different types.
Wet gas meters
Initially, it was mainly the so-called "wet gas meter 'known. He was conceived by the Briton Samuel Clegg. These gauges were up to slightly above the center filled with water. Turned about a horizontal axis a drum with measuring instruments. Be protected by adding gin or spirit to the water in the winter, the wet gas meters were against frostbite.
Coin Meters
Mid 19th century there were also mint gas meters. To get gas, you had to first stop coins in the meter. They were usually on sale at a local shopkeeper, such as the grocery store, tobacco shop or the local sweet shop.
Have a connection to the gas line did not mean to say that there came no more gas. Probably many households have never used their connection or only to a limited extent.
Devices coins were never verified because they were all equally badly calibrated. A man so had to have a bit of luck with his gas meter!

Gaskronen

Because gas lighting from the start was something for the wealthy upper class, have also been there from the very beginning chandeliers working on gas. Which are usually called 'gasluchters' or' gaskronen.
To gaselier fingertips to be able to stabbing existed throughout time two systems:
  • A device with a water sliding rod. This consisted of two telescoping tubes. The seal between these tubes was accomplished by a water column on which a floating layer of oil to prevent evaporation. The gasluchter could be pushed down with this system.

  • A device with a cork pendant. It came later than those with the water slide rod. The feed tube was now sealed with a gasket made of cork that made possible the sliding movement. This system did give problems. For a limited sealing was leakage of gas and slipped the crown slowly. In a tight seal, there was so much effort is required to pull down the gasluchter that it often did break the mantles.

Of course it was possible to stabbing the gaselier out of reach with a long, extendable aansteekstok, as they did for centuries with chandeliers.

Use gas lamps in the twentieth century

Until the First World War, the gas lamp remained the most popular lighting. After the war the bulb increasingly gaining ground. However, it was a gradual process, so that the gas lamp until World War II was a normal phenomenon.
During the Second World War in Western Europe the supply of fuel via pipelines to be largely silent. Therefore it was necessary after the war all over again to set up things like pipe networks, lighting and heating. That led to the largely eliminating gas as a fuel for lighting. This was also done with the gas lamp as lighting for the home.
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