The milk yield in standard lactation and milking is at a peak in the spring and a trough in winter. However, the demand for goat milk is actually increased in the winter. Some customers also pay a surcharge on winter milk to boost goat farms to produce more. This is done by advancing the rutting season from the goat so that lambing in October-November happens instead of in March. However, this technique creates extra costs and labor, and not every year equally good results. Milking expensive but gives a fairly steady milk yield with a smaller peak in the spring and a smaller valley in winter. This adds to invest for a smaller surplus in the spring and a larger supply in the winter at no additional cost or labor.
When the fat and protein - CVE production in the three techniques over two years compared, there is virtually no difference.
Standard milked: 155kg CVE
- By Milking: 155kg CVE
- Duration Milking: 154kg CVE
If, however, the realized production over a period of 2 years is looking give the duurmelkers13,8% fat and more protein than the standard milked animals. The milkers duration of the daily average is also higher than that of the standard lactation.
Table 2: Realized milk yields of one-year old animals that were two years in production during the project.
This is mainly explained by the selection criteria by which the duration fanciers are chosen. It is generally expected from goat to goat with a higher milk yield more persistent and thus better suited for endurance milking. After investigation, however, shows this not to be true. Low- and middle productive animals even seem to be somewhat more persistent.
Influence on the processability of milk
Another important question about milking duration is, of course, the influence on the processability of the milk.
In standard lactation, the processability of milk decreases towards the end of the lactation period. This is caused by the influence of the involution of the udder on the composition of the milk.
Graph 2: Course milk yield and somatic cell count lamb goats 1st, 2nd and 3rd year milked .There is a degradation of casein, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin determined and an increase in kappa casein. At milking time, this process will also take place at the end of lactation. As this period is relatively shorter than a standard end-of lactation the milk lactation animals will be smaller. This therefore allows for a better processability of the milk in milking duration.
Also, an increased cell count has a negative influence on the workability. The somatic cell count increases at the end of lactation and when an animal has had mastitis. After a comparative study between standard lactation duration and milk show that even in expensive milk somatic cell count rises to the end of lactation, but remains lower than with a standard lactation. As a result, this increase has less influence. This can be explained by the generally larger milk yield of expensive milkers which has a diluting effect on the somatic cell count. Further standard lactations have a higher risk of mastitis by drying off the lambing and kidding around lowered immunity and thus may increase their SCC.
Furthermore, colostrum milk also has a negative influence on the workability. During aflammerperiode is however always a large amount of milk handy afgelammerde goats at. Duration milking has therefore here a positive influence because goats often less lambing.
Labour and lambs
Reducing the work around the peak is lambing following the spreading of the milk yield, the main reason for goats farmers to go expensive milking. Since fewer lambs are born, there is obviously less work during aflammerperiode.
This has the added advantage that there is less surplus lambs. Finally, there are only a limited number of animals needed to keep the livestock stable. Even if the company expands its livestock are in standard lactation usually born more animals than needed. These excess animals are then sold to a fattening but cost the goat farmer more money than they bring something. The occurrence of this surplus lambs is not only financially interesting. It also contributes to the image of the goat sector which become seen as a friendly sector.
The smaller number of lambs in Spain, and France, the biggest reason for not going expensive milking. The conditions are therefore completely different. The farmers receive a fair price for their lambs so expensive milk would be just a loss of revenue. Reducing labor also tackled differently. The number of animals per farm there is usually smaller, so it is less of a need to reduce the labor. If you still want to do this one will go first before milking once a day instead of two times. The greater storage capacity that the udders of goats in Spain milk yield will still remain at reasonable levels.
Failure and illness
Since most diseases occur shortly after lambing and thus before the selection period for milking takes place, it is difficult to make an accurate comparison. Generally it can be said that most of the treatments in the first 6 months of the lactation period take place and that, during the milking, so almost no treatments take place anymore.
One of the most common diseases are pyometra. Uterine Infections are a direct consequence of the lambing and are therefore per lactation equally common in expensive milkers as in standard lactation. Since milkers not expensive every year lambing will occur much less per calendar year for them.
Research shows that the mortality per lactation period fanciers is smaller than standard lactations. Since the lactations in expensive milk last longer than with standard lactation, the difference in mortality per calendar year will be greater. Due to the reduced resistance and the negative energy balance around the lambing, the animals are more susceptible to disease.
Milking duration thus provides a smaller base by reducing the risk ?? s associated with pregnancy and lambing. This leads to better animal health and longer life.
A possible consequence of expensive milking pseudopregnancy. Research has shown that become established in standard lactation 9% pseudopregnancy per lactation duration and milk 23.2%. When one looks at this calendar year, there is virtually no difference. It is also true that covered animals that prove to be false pregnancy often transferred to the expensive milk group. Why am determined that some time milkers are repeatedly phantom pregnancy.
Some companies try to counter false pregnancy to term by the landlords to keep animals strictly separated from the buck and by custom light regimes in the barn. It has not yet been investigated whether these methods effectively have an impact on the number of appearances pregnancies.
A disadvantage of it is faster milking time of the animals get fat. This has a negative effect on fertility for the next lactation period. By giving a proper diet is however pretty good fix. Both a mixed ration as a straw - chunk - rations are possible.
Another problem is that expensive milking the sharpness selection for breeding may decrease. Good dairy goats are milked several years in succession while animals fatten faster will be quickly covered again. This causes the greater part of the lambs of the least so great so that the torque animals genetically deteriorates. One possible solution is to have good goats only start time milking after two or three gestations. Young animals have fewer problems with the lambing which there will be less downtime.
CAE is a slow-acting, contagious viral infection. The virus belongs to the family of the lentiviruses. It is species-specific and therefore only come to goats. The virus is related to the zwoegerziektevirus that occurs in sheep. Am also sometimes linked to AIDS in humans.
The disease manifests itself in different ways, inter alia, depending on the age of the animal. Not all infected animals, however, show symptoms. Those who do have symptoms may exhibit one or more. CAE may manifest as arthritis, encephalitis, chronic mastitis, and interstitial pneumonia.
In young animals from CAE usually as a encephalitis between 2 and 6 months old age. It begins with an irregular gait by slackening of the hind legs. This aggravates the entire hindquarters paralyzed. This relaxation and paralysis spreads further than the rest of the body until the animals can no longer stand up. Other less common symptoms are preventable blindness, circle, torticollis, tremor, opisthotonus and hyperaesthesia. The animals often have a rough and dull coat. However, the animals remain alert and, if possible, eat and drink normally. There is no treatment possible. The disease is quite fast. In 2 to 4 weeks, this will lead to paralysis and eventually death.
At times, this form of CAE also occurs in adult goats between the ages of 1 to 5 years. As with the lambs the disorder begins with an irregular gait that are within the 4 months worsens to paralysis.
In adult animals, the disease mainly by inflamed joints. This condition begins with carpal arthritis. This may be unilateral or bilateral occur but usually it will be bilateral. The swelling of the carpi is first soft and painful. Depending on the infection progresses, the swelling will harden and they become clearly visible. It is through this remarkable swelling of the knees that the disease ?? thick knees disease ?? is called. Much synovial fluid is found in the connective tissue. The moisture can be bright yellow to reddish brown and has a lower viscosity than normal synovial fluid. The inflammation will spread further over the body past the shoulders, hips and pelvis. Normally arthritis is associated with a stiffening of the joints and in lameness. Some goats have, however, a normal practice despite obvious swollen joints. Other symptoms that often accompany this disease are weight loss, poor general condition, reduced milk yield and a dull, rough coat. Because the animals often lie there bedsores can occur and should be paid attention to the need no longer sufficient wear.
Usually the symptoms express themselves around the age of one to two years. Also, there is no cure. The animal usually dies from additional symptoms 5 to 8 years of age. The pain of the animal may be mitigated by giving it a soft surface to rest and analgesics to administer.
The evolution of the disease varies from one animal, it can remain stable for a long time or even worsen quickly. The disease peaks often when the animal is stressed.
Mastitis is a common symptom but I am not always reported because the symptoms are not immediately visible or recognizable. Milk production can sometimes be less but the udder is usually not thick or warm. Depending on the infection progresses the udder tissue dries up. On palpation one feels that the udder tissue is hard. Sometimes, there are also for nodules in the tissue. The goat gets a so-called flesh udder. The inflammation usually occurs in one udder half but it also happens that the entire udder is inflamed. Milk production goes further back and can finally complete breakdown. However, the composition of the milk remains normal. Chronic mastitis is most common in lactating goats but can also occur in young animals not lactate.
Despite the fact that CAE almost always leads to only one lung changes, this condition usually remains subclinical. Sometimes in adults have a chronic progressive pneumonia for. This manifests itself in the beginning by rapid breathing in small efforts. The goat will also begin coughing and will eventually suffer from shortness of breath even at rest.
Because an animal sometimes years can be infected without showing symptoms, it is difficult to establish with certainty that fact to CAE. Other methods are virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction and serological tests; The agar gel immuno diffusion test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
In practice, especially serological tests will be used by the easy sampling, and the cost aspect. ELISA is routinely applied. These tests demonstrate the infection by the presence of anti-viral antibodies in the serum. Usually, these antibodies will be created shortly after the infection, but sometimes only after months or years. It even happens that never produce antibodies infected goat. These animals are in a test so as serologically negative but noted infect other animals. Sometimes, these animals can do show symptoms. It may even happen that a serologically positive animal in later tests returned negative. Serological tests are therefore more suitable in order to establish an infection within a group than for individual diagnosis. In animals younger than 90 days, it is difficult to make a diagnosis through serological tests by the incorporation of the antibodies through the mother's milk.
The greatest risk for infection is between the dam and the lamb. Lambs are mainly infected through colostrum but also saliva, urine and manure contamination sources.
Even adults can become infected by coming in contact with saliva, droppings, urine or milk of an infected animal, through personal contact and even by breathing over short distances. The virus can also be transmitted by people who have come in contact with an infected animal.
Sheep can be carriers and therefore disseminators of CAE but they get the disease itself. However, the chance of infection of goats with sheep is small.
There is no cure for CAE. Some symptoms may however be mitigated by example giving painkillers and anti-inflammatories. The emphasis is on preventing and controlling the disease rather than treat it.
The best method to prevent contamination CAE is the motherless rearing of lambs. The lambs must be separated immediately after birth of the possibly infected dams. The lamb must have no contact with the mother; it should not be licked and should not come in contact with manure or urine. The lambs get the first three days of colostrum from a CAE-free goat, bovine colostrum or artificial colostrum. Then they are fed with CAE-free goats, bovine milk or artificial milk. This is done using buckets or teat-called bearded bars. This exists in several versions. This technique is also used in CAE free certified companies in order to prevent recontamination.
Animals over six months of regular serological testing of infected animals can be detected early. These animals are best removed. However, this is financially in practice is not always feasible. Therefore infected animals are put separately in at least two meters away from the healthy animals.
Goat Farmers in Belgium to participate voluntarily in a control plan for which they can get a free certificate CAE. A company CAE declared free after all goats over 12 months, tested two times serologically have been negative with an interval of 6 to 12 months and all tests. The resulting certificate is valid for 1 year. The animals must not later than 11 months later and tested again. In a completely negative certificate is extended again by one year. After two successive extensions of one year, the certificate may be extended by two years.
There are some other measures to prevent contamination. For example, you first milk the CAE-free goats for infected goats and the young goats for the old. Furthermore buy new animals at best a certified company.
There are three pasture systems; strip graze, omweiden state and meadows. These three methods all have their advantages and disadvantages. What is the best method depends on the conditions on the farm. There must be taken into account the number of animals on the holding in relation to the area of land available for grazing. Also, labor and intestinal worm infection are important factors.
To strip graze the pastures are divided into small plots using mobile fencing. The goats are posted each day on a different plot. It is the most labor-intensive method. The goats, however, have every day fresh grass so the quantities are constant. It is also an effective method to minimize the infection pressure with gastrointestinal worms. There will be more trampling .Stripgrazen occur by the higher concentration of animals become, in practice, the most commonly used. A survey by the Louis Bolk Institute shows that companies which use this method on average a larger number of animals but also the largest pasture area allowing them to other companies have fewer animals per hectare of land.
Omweiden to be the goat every few days, depending on the grass offer, moved to another pasture. To maintain the peace in the omweiden it's best to let the animals a bit longer on the same meadow. It should then be taken into consideration the risk of infection of the gastro-intestinal worm.
The ideal inschaarhoogte is between 10 and 12cm.
To stand grazing the goats a long time standing on one meadow. This method is the least labor-intensive and also provides most of the rest for the goats. It ensures a high infection for intestinal worms.
To stand grazing grass become the most utilized. After a time, however, there may be odors and pollution from manure, thus keeping the goats will eat less. It is therefore better goats no longer than 70 days to leave on a meadow. Stand Weiden am mainly used by companies with a smaller surface area available pasture. The ideal inschaarhoogte is between 12 and 15cm.
Gastrointestinal Worm Infection
The most common species are Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus spp. The Haemonchus contortus worm is the most harmful due to the relatively large amount of blood, 0.05 ml, which he records per day. Goats are more susceptible to worms than most other livestock. They develop because no complete immunity against gastrointestinal worms. However, they can build a pre- immunity thereby become inhibited the development of the larvae and egg production. The animals should be nearly constant light have been infected in order to maintain this pre-immunity.
The life cycle of this worm species have much in common so that a general discussion is possible.
The adult worms are mainly found in the abomasum and the small intestine. They lay eggs here that together with the goat droppings left the body.
If the temperature and humidity is high enough, the larvae of the first stage within a day from the eggs. These larvae molt and develop as in 7 to 10 days until the second stage and third stage larvae. The larvae of the third stage infective larvae. They crawl on the grass up so they are eaten it while grazing. In the animal the larvae develop in about three weeks on until the fourth and fifth larval stage and finally to a mature egg-producing worm.
L3 larvae that are recognized in the late summer or autumn can after development to L4 larvae at rest going into the lining of the abomasum or the small intestine. These larvae develop in the spring and thus provide an increased protein excretion during lambing.
The development of the larvae in the whey and the viability of the L3 larvae is dependent on the weather conditions. Under tropical conditions, the larvae will quickly hatch and develop faster. The L3 larvae will remain infectious longer in temperate conditions.
Strip Grazing keep the infection at its lowest.
When omweiden is omgeweid within 8 days to keep the risk of infection as low as possible. The meadow is then averaged 28 days empty, others wait at least two months. The meadow should be mowed at least once before the next grazing. To establish a sound preventive grazing plan, however, further studies need to be done to the cycle of the intestinal worms and the influence of weather conditions on this cycle.
Omweiden can also be combined with other livestock such as pigs, cows and horses. They host of other types of intestinal worms causing the infection graze become reduced when mixed.
Studies in New Zealand show that certain herbs, such Chichorei, birdsfoot trefoil, Lotus pendunculatus and Hedysarum coronarium, reduce infection pressure.
Also, research is done into larva trapping fungi. Duddingtonia flagrans The fungus, which grows in the manure, is able to capture the larvae of most gastro-intestinal worms, and deaths.
At a high infection pressure on a plot better, there may be a year or be cut only a rotation to be applied to a forage crop.
If an infection is established can be wormed with products containing anthelmintics and garlic oil. Also walnuts blade would work against worm infection but this is not officially seen as worming.
Deworming should not be used than is necessary. Anthelmintic has a negative effect on the environment and especially on the insects that live on the manure. There must certainly be taken to avoid the emergence of resistant worms.
Influence of grassland strategies in milk production
Comparison between the pasture and the barn methods
Table 3: Effect of pasture ration and stole ration in the production and composition of milk .During a three-year investigation, the milk was compared with a group of goats standing in the stable and a group that was grazed according omweidingsysteem. The first year of the goat milk production was stable at higher and lower in the second year. During the third year, there was virtually no difference between the two systems.
Table 4: Effect of pasture ration and stole ration in the production and composition of milk. In a study of similar design but with stand pastures instead of omweiden saw no significant difference in milk production.
Table 5: Effect of feed converted and stand on the production and composition of milk. When two years compared to the milk of a goat in the group omweidingssysteem and a group from the state pastures they saw no difference in production. The production was in the first year or more constant at the position meadows.
Table 6: Effect of the start time of the feed in the production and composition of milk Higher milk production and fat content was measured when goats were pastured February 31 to March 31 in front of goats began grazing.
Affect the milk composition
The milk composition is partly determined by the botanical composition. A research on the fatty acid composition of milk in the alpine mountain area, the Plateau and the lowlands, conducted by the Swiss Federal Institute für Forschungsanstalt Milchwirtschaft shows that region ?? s 1300 m above are favorable for increased nutritional value of milk. This is due to the difference in supply on the meadows and by a greater variation in the offer. Thus, in the mountain grasslands more than 150 species while in the art sown pastures in the lowlands, but about eight species. There are a variety of plants that have a positive influence on the single and multiple unsaturated fatty acids. The dandelion burr, meadowsweet, strawberry, parsley and wild carrot here all have a positive impact. Legumes and grasses increase then the saturated fatty acids.
As already mentioned, the botanical supply and the degree of an influence of variation in the milk composition and the health of the animals. It is therefore important to choose a correct composition. In practice, however, it gives little variation.
The most common crop is grass / clover with a particular use is made of a BG5 mixture consisting of 56% perennial ryegrass diploid, 14% timothy, 14% fescue, 3% Kentucky bluegrass, 3% white prairie clover and 3% white culture clover.
With the grass species goats appear to have a preference for culture. In view of the properties of the grass, however, it is not desirable to have the greater extent in the meadow. Also, Italian ryegrass, hybrid ryegrass and early English ryegrass are not always suitable. These grasses in the spring have a high sugar content and therefore low crude protein content. In combination with the structure value is still low in the spring can cause enterotoxaemie.
Often it opted for a mix of perennial ryegrass and timothy.
Red clover seems to best meet the needs of goats nibble. Given the often low persistence of red clover it is recommended to use the variety Merviot what is most persistent. In white clover clover culture seems the most to meet the need for nibbling.
Alfalfa is used less on businesses. Given stalked character and the growth habit of the plant comes closer to the natural need of goats nibble than grass / clover. Alfalfa, however, maintains it difficult in mixed crops and does not like grazing and trampling. The breed Luzelle or weideluzerne is already here better suited for but then only in combination with white clover to keep production and protein supply level.
Herbs can be a valuable addition to the diet. They contain other minerals than grass and may contain substances that are good for health. As plantain contains a bacteria inhibitor and birdsfoot lowers the risk of infection of intestinal worms.
As mentioned earlier, some herbs also have a positive influence on the composition of the milk. In the Netherlands and Belgium are few herbs on the meadow sown. If there herbs are sown it is mainly oto plantain, yarrow and chicory.
Trees and shrubs
Since a Knabbelaar naturally goat is the cultivation should be more focused on trees and shrubs. The first choice of a goat are the buds, leaves, young branches and the bark of trees and shrubs.
Worldwide, there are many examples but given the grass / clover tradition in our region, it is difficult a system based on trees and shrubs to make it competitive. However, there are several options; there may hedges and hedgerows are planted or prunings can be moved to the pasture to supplement their rations. Examples include blackberry, willow, alder, ash and locust.
The ration calculation is for a goat of 65 kg in the first part of her first lactation with milk from 3l / day with 3.3% protein and 4% fat. The goat is grazed between milkings according omweidesysteem.
Energy and Protein
The milk / protein production and the number of kg of milk of measurement are requested in further calculations. These two data are first calculated.
Is first calculated, the number of kg of fat and protein corrected measuring milk. This is the number of kg of milk with 4% fat and 3.32% protein. This is calculated using the following formula:
= Mm +) x liters of milk
= Mm +) x3 = 2.997 kg
We then calculate the milk / protein production in grams. We use the following formula:
E = liters of milk protein x 10% x
E = 3x3,3x10 = 99g
Now we can calculate the VEM and DVE need:
Table 7: The calculation of the total energy and protein requirements
The amount of VEM and DVE are not the only requirements to the ration. There is also a need for vitamins, minerals and trace elements. Further, the structure of the power supply and the level OEB- important.
For dairy goats is a structure share of 20% is ideal. With less structure in the diet increases the risk of indigestion. A structure rich diet stimulates the rumen.
Producing dairy goats at the OEB must ration approximately 10 OEB per liter of milk. In this example, so 10 x 3l = 30 OEB OEB.
Table 8: The calculation of the vitamin needs per day
Table 9: The calculation of the mineral requirement per day.
Table 10: The calculation of the need for trace elements per day.
Dry dust holding capacity
Dry matter intake of a goat is maximum 3% of its body weight for roughage. In a combination of roughage and concentrates, this 4 to 5% of the body weight.
This example involves a yearling so we assume an intake of 4%. This means that this goat so 2.6kg of dry matter can absorb.
Dry matter intake in goats'm also influenced by the palatability of the feed and the number of times they get fresh food every day. If the goats get two or three times a day fresh food they take in more dry matter than when they eat their first meal. This of course is labor intensive. One way to reduce the labor and yet to several times per day is feeding at the feeding to lay a portion out of reach of the animals. From feed to sweep a few times to get the goat every time fresh food and there should be only one time really be fed.
First must be seen how much the goat will take on average in the pasture, then it can only be calculated how much still needs to be fed in the stables.
According to research from Pijlman Jeroen takes an average goat 0,62kg DS per day in a omweidesysteem of six days with grass / clover.
Given the goat still in the first part of lactation is I use the nutritional value of grass / clover per kg DM in the summer.
Table 11: nutritional value of grass / clover in summer
Table 12: Calculation of energy and protein intake after grass / clover
So we can still 1,98kg to conduct while they are stabled. It is possible to meet the needs without really concentrate to give concentrates species such as triticale, CCM, beet pulp, potatoes and flaxseed.
Table 13: Composition of ration
There is then 0.77 VEM and DVE 22,97g too. They are small surpluses and as the goat in lactation is not really this is a problem.
Linseed, beet pulp, triticale, potatoes and CCM have no structural value. Grass / clover and alfalfa in particular do have a good structure and value make up 45% of the ration. The share structure complies certainly the norm.
The OEB value is slightly higher than the previously calculated ideal value. This can therefore result in a small loss of minerals. However, the difference is minimal.
Source basic information:
In general, the feed material is poor in vitamin E, only flaxseed is rich in here and grass / clover contains sufficient to meet the need. There will normally be no shortage. During the stable season must be taken to avoid a deficit.
Since 45% of the ration consists of grassland products will normally sufficient β-carotene present in the ration. There is, however, a negative influence as possible through the grains and beet pulp in the ration.
Vitamin D is mainly produced in the skin upon exposure to sunlight. During the grazing season the animal will be sufficiently exposed to sunlight, and there is no additional accuracy required from the diet. During the stable season, especially at the end of the season, but there may be a shortage because the animals for a long time no longer stood in the sunlight.
Source basic information:
Given the large amounts containing present in alfalfa and grass / clover will ration normally sufficient calcium. Triticale and CCM are however poor in calcium.
Triticale contains sufficient phosphorus. Also on the meadow is recorded normally enough so that the addition is normally not necessary.
Magnesium is sufficient for alfalfa and grass / clover. Triticale does not contain enough magnesium.
Triticale, CCM and alfalfa have very low sodium levels. Grass / clover, however, contains sufficient sodium in order to meet the needs.
Alfalfa and grass / clover are very rich in potassium. Too high intake of potassium can have a negative impact on the use of magnesium and sodium.
Source basic information:
Iron is poorly absorbed through goats. Due to the rather high values that are present in grass / clover and lucerne, there will normally be no shortages. An excess of the limited absorption of copper and zinc.
Especially triticale contains a lot of zinc. Also, alfalfa and grass / clover contain enough zinc to meet the need. However, care must be taken there for a shortage since a wrong ratio compared to other minerals may provide a too small accuracy.
Triticale and grass / clover contain sufficient manganese to meet the need. There has to be fit with the liming of acid soils because it can cause a deficiency in crops.
In view of the low values that appear in the selected feed materials, there is likely to copper deficiency. There will thus additional copper must be added to the feed, for example by a mineral mixture. Some feed materials which may be rich in copper and rationing thus possibly improve his sunflower pit, chicory, elder, ash and hazel.
Grass / clover and Triticale contain too little selenium. The values in alfalfa, however, are more than sufficient to meet the need.
Iodine is sufficient in nearly all the feed materials in order to meet the need.
There is plenty of sulfur present in alfalfa and grass / clover. Sulphur, however, must occur in a correct relationship with nitrogen for an optimal production of protein in the rumen is formed. A proper ratio of nitrogen: sulfur is 14.5: 1 or closer. When alfalfa and triticale the ratio is closer and grass / clover average slightly larger.
Given some vitamins and minerals are not always present sufficient in food, additional vitamins and minerals. This can include the form of a bolus, a lick, and powder.
The law determines which supplements should be given to organic goat. The vitamins A, D and E are allowed. Synthetic vitamins are however permissible only if they are identical to the natural vitamins. The trace elements iron, molybdenum, zinc, selenium, iodine, cobalt, copper, and manganese are allowed in different forms. Minerals are not further specified in the legislation.
A goat has 1.5 to 2 liters of water per kg of dry matter. As the goat in this example, 2.6 kg of dry matter per day can absorb 5.2 liters of water must be provided.