The Roman numerals, we all know them. They are often depicted on clocks, as birthdate, on statues or the numbering of monarchs and popes of the same name. How the Roman numerals were created? Can there really be numbered with Roman numerals? They are for us all complicated to decipher. You surely would not have to remember to be counting even there yet ?! And yet the Romans could count with Roman numerals. Even multiply them manage it.
The Romans have their numeral system around 500 BC. developed based on number systems from surrounding nations, such as the Greeks and the Etruscans. The Roman numerals seem a lot like western letters, but are not derived here.
The Etruscans used the symbols I Λ X ⋔ 8 ⊕ for IVXLC M. These Etruscan symbols have evolved from notching tally-sticks that used shepherds in Italy and Dalmatia.
I, V and X
I was just one notch in the tally.
Λ every fifth notch was double notch, it was also as ⋀, ⋁, ⋋ and ⋌ shown.
X stands for the sign of two crossed notches, or twice Λ, in the place of the tenth notch.
So there arose a slate several notches in a row, with at fixed places special notches to count easily. For example, the number 11 was recorded in the following manner on the slate: IIII Λ IIIIXI
Because the incisions always took place in the same way, the particular signs were symbolic of the number itself. So the notch in fifth place was the fifth number, so 5. Ditto for the notch in tenth place, which was the symbol for the number 10. The four were then symbolized as: what is the number five, so I Λ.
The symbols seemed very much like the letters that were used. The symbols thus evolved slowly until the letters IV and X.
L, C, D and M
The higher numbers were marked on a slate. The 50th was designated a V with an extra notch N, И, K, Ψ, ⋔ etc. These characters evolved into a ⊥, which again the letter L was. The 100 was in the same way indicated by an X with an additional notch: Ж, ⋉, ⋈. These characters evolved over> I
On the slate 100th V was, standing in front of the number 500, circled, or a square around it was signed. This led eventually to the letter D. The 100th X was signed the same way: an X with a square or a circle around it: Ⓧ. This sign was the Greek letter Φ and with some imagination herein are identified two D ?? s, with their backs glued to each other. It was written as CIƆ. The later symbol of 1000 is hardly recognizable here. Probably the Romans following the C ?? ?? centum, the M ?? ?? mille, 1000 which in Latin means chosen.
Half of 1000, 500 is still derived from the symbol CIƆ. There was 500, the half of 1000, literally half of 1000, CIƆ, taken: IƆ, corresponding to a D.
I = 1
V = 5
X = 10
L = 50
C = 100
D = 500
M = 1000
The highest number is always left as possible. The number might start with thousands, then hundreds, then tens and then the units. The number of thousands of the number is indicated by the letter ?? ?? to repeat as many times as is necessary. An example: 3000 is therefore MMM, 20 then XX. The number 3020 is then MMMXX. The only exception is that sometimes a lower ?? point ?? for a higher state. Does this mean that this lower number from the higher number must be subtracted. For example: IV is 5-1 = 4, CM 1000-100 = 900. Thus, for example, so CMIV 904.
It is not easy to deal with Roman numerals. The execution of a multiplier is complicated at all. The Romans, however, had devised a way to still be able to calculate their numbers. They used a method where previously they only needed to halve numbers, doubles and count, so that they could perform calculations on their abacus:
Write to multiply the two numbers next to each other
Halve the left number, if it is not divisible by two, take the greatest possible division: 9 div 2 = 4
Double the right number
Repeat steps 2 and 3 until the figure left I became
Now count the numbers in the column on which an odd number in the left column
Example: Multiply XIX XXI
Add: XXI XDII + = + CCCXXXVI CCCXCIX
Indeed XIX × XXI = CCCXCIX