How dogs learn?

Nature DagAmer0221 August 8, 2016 1 2
Most households with a dog know it, the doorbell rings and the dog barking. "I never taught him this, but he does it" is the reaction of many owners. Pouncing also against the visit, something we've never taught him aware, or do they? In this article you read to learn more about how dogs and how we can influence it. Many households in the Netherlands have a dog, a cozy buddy to play with, to walk and often an effective way to deter burglars. In general it is very nice when listening, and most people also deal with the dog on course, some only to puppy training, others find it very fun and also go to train or work with the dog. There is also a group of dog owners who like working with the dogs, these working dogs are often trained on job security or police training.
On puppycourse we stand between very cute puppies. With the aid of a biscuit, the dog in a sitting posture lured and after a while the dog can sit down on command. In training 10 years ago or working dogs, people often feel that the "sit" taught is very different, there is just as long at the back pushed to the dog sits. Whether it harms the animal, I do not have it. The fact remains that both working methods, but they are based on a different principle doctrine.

Classical conditioning

Classical conditioning is a form of association which teach a dog the link goes down between two stimuli. Classical conditioning was accidentally discovered in 1905 by the Russian scientist Pavlov. Pavlov studied the effect of salivary glands of dogs and gave the dogs food to raise salivate. After a while all the dogs started to salivate when they saw his test set, while there was no food at all in the neighborhood. The dogs had learned to make a connection between the test set and the food.
In the same way dogs have learned to bark when the doorbell rings, the owners have never been consciously working here. The dogs bark when visiting at the door. After a while the dogs go see the connection between the fact that the doorbell rings and there visit to the door, so they will bark when the doorbell rings. It could go even further; perhaps the visit must run over a gravel path in the front yard before they ring the bell and stand at the door, after a while will the dogs will learn the relationship between walking along the gravel path and the doorbell, with the result that the dog starts barking like someone walks across the gravel path.
Also, the teaching of the use of the clicker is covered by the classical conditioning. When learning of this a number of times a click is made, followed by giving a candy. The dog will soon begin to see the connection between the click and getting a cookie.

Operant conditioning

Operant conditioning is a form of association which teach a dog the relationship goes between his behavior and the immediate consequences. If the consequences are pleasant, the dog will exhibit this behavior more often. If the consequences are not pleasant, will decrease the behavior. It is very important to remember that it is the direct result of behavior and that we want to teach a dog anything, so timing is crucial.
There are four types of operant conditioning: Force, which can be positive or negative and correct, this too can be positive and negative. Positive means that something is added and negative means that something is being taken away. Energizing means the dog will exhibit the behavior more often while at correcting the behavior will decrease.
Ratification: the behavior increases
Ratify positive
Learning the seat with a biscuit is a fine example of ratifying positive. If we give the dog a biscuit when he goes he will sit it as enjoyable, the dog will see the behavior often later. He will even go as we learn that "sit" and say he sits down, he gets a cookie. The direct consequence of his behavior gets a cookie so on. In this situation, there will be added a little, namely, the biscuit, hence confirm the positive term.
However, you do learn through positive energizing for us not to address positive, this also applies pouncing. A sweet little puppy that by visiting jumps will often be petted by the visit, it is so difficult to do that. But the puppy learns in fact springing gives him something pleasant, namely attention. The behavior of the rebound will be more frequently displayed and added something, namely attention. So this is taught through positive reinforcement, although the visit can be a negative experience as the same dog once adult still jump.
Another example is the bark of the front door when the dog walks. We get up and grab the leash, the dog is excited, he can go outside. Once at the front door, he starts barking and we know that the dog stops barking when he is outside. So we throw as soon as possible to stop the barking open the front door and the dog has learned that if he barks at the door, he can go outside.
Ratify negative
With negative reinforcement teaches the dog that for him disincentive disappears if he shows certain behaviors. Learning the seat pushing through is a good example. Pushing on the back, the dog will not be a pleasant experience, but he learns that if he goes down, the pressure is removed. So he will sit down more often and faster to the feel of a hand on his back and the pressure is removed when he sits.
Also learning that the dog should not pull on the leash with a choke chain is a negative reinforcement. The dog feels pressure as he pulls alongside the boss and if he starts running, the pressure is off. The dog learns to walk next to the boss is much more pleasant and will do this more often, this behavior is energized. It is a negative confirmation by the unpleasant feeling of the pressure is removed.
Now it is not being used only in training made of negative reinforcement. The dog is in the garden in the sun. The dog gets hot, he gets up and lies down in the shade, which is much more pleasant. Here too there is negative reinforcement because of the unpleasant stimulus disappears as the direct heat of the sun is removed.
Correction: the behavior decreases
Positive correction
It is sometimes recommended to puppy owners to let the dog frightened by something that makes a lot of noise next to him to throw down when he, for example in shoes it's bite. If the dog is frightened, it will gnaw through which negative experience less on shoes. Especially when he again shocked every time whenever he gnaws shoes. The behavior of gnawing will decrease shoes because he has learned that he is startled when he does that. There is added, namely, the sound of which he is shocked and so this is a positive correction.
Another example is, for example, when a dog sniffs to a cat, and the cat has. The dog will in future no longer smell like cat and something is added, namely the crab cat.
Negative correction
With a negative correction will reduce certain behavior from the dog because something is pleasurable is removed, the most famous example is no longer being on the command "here" or "for". If the dog to follow because he loses his freedom, which is taken away and we have to come here make it very nice, he wants to keep coming. Usually the dog is on a leash after the coming and the end is playing, we go home. So the dog learns that when he comes, the pleasant playing and freedom it is taken and the behavior of the do come will therefore decrease.