- Kidney and urinary tract
- Location of the kidneys: where are your kidneys?
- Construction and kidney function
- Function of kidneys
- Damage to the kidneys - kidney problems
Kidney and urinary tract ">
Kidney and urinary tract
The design of the human body is based on two kidneys. The kidneys are left and right, high in the side, just behind the lower ribs on the backside. Each kidney is a kidney: a sort of funnel where the urine gathers. From the renal pelvis, the urine passes through the urethra to the bladder, which sits at the bottom of your stomach. In the bladder urine is stored temporarily; the bladder is, in fact, a temporary storage of urine. If your bladder is full, you will need to pass urine through the urethra and urine exits eventually your body.
Where are the kidneys? The kidneys are two reddish brown, bean-shaped organs about 10-12 cm long, 6-7 cm wide and 3 cm thick, and they are located on the back above the waist line. An average kidney weighs 150 grams. The reddish-brown color due to the kidneys to the many blood vessels that run through it. The inner edge is hollow and comprises in its center a notch, the kidney port. The kidneys get from the aorta via the renal artery their arterial blood. The renal vein carries off the purified blood to the lower vena cava. On the concave side of the kidney is also located the beginning of the ureter. Flows per day, about 1,500 to 2,000 liters of blood by the kidneys. The kidneys produce about 1.5 liters of urine daily. The kidneys can process daily up to 600 times their own weight in moisture.
The kidneys are less well protected from injury than organs such as the heart and liver. There appears to have been taken into account in the design of the human body, in that we have two kidneys. As a result, we are protected against any loss of a kidney due to an accident or intentional injury.
Each kidney is composed of a million microscopic filter particles, 'nephrons' named. Each nephron consists of five parts. The nephrons filter the blood causing 'urine' is created and then find out the urine reabsorption of substances rather than to the blood, leaving only urine. A day by the two kidneys made up about 180 liters of urine, of which 178.5 liters is reabsorbed. The reabsorption carried out by other parts of the nephron than the filter. The reabsorption of substances is precision what amount of energy and therefore cost oxygen.
The kidneys can adapt well to changing circumstances. If you use a lot of salt, then your kidneys also remove more salts from the blood. Kidneys also there will always ensure that all the glucose in the urine is reabsorbed. Yet there are situations where the supply of glucose in the blood is so high that the kidneys are no longer able to manage the abundance so there will be urine is produced when glucose is present. This is for instance the case with uncontrolled diabetes. When there is present more sugar in the urine, extra water is sucked in. This is also the reason that a diabetic much to pee, so he excessive thirst.
The kidneys are with respect to their functioning assisted by hormones, in order to let the reabsorption and secretion processes proceed adequately. For example, the hormone helps "aldosterone ', which originates from the adrenal cortex, in the reabsorption of sodium. The "antidiuretic hormone", which is delivered to the bloodstream by the posterior pituitary, plays a role in the regulation of water and moisture in the body. ADH the formation of urine against by always to get back the right amount of water in the nephron. A shortage of this hormone provides an abundant urine production. There is a large amount of unconcentrated urine causing dehydration can occur. A deficiency of ADH is called "diabetes insipidus. People with diabetes insipidus urinate a lot and constantly thirsty. The condition can be treated with medication.
- Removing waste from the blood;
- Controlling the fluid and salt balance; and
- Making hormones.
Above we have already described the process that get kidney waste from the blood. Another important function of the kidneys is to regulate the fluid and salt balance of the body. The body can only function properly if the amount of moisture as much as possible remains constant. This is a task of the kidneys. For example if you have been drinking, your kidneys produce urine and extra if you need a lot less sweat once again. The kidneys also ensure that the amount of salts in the blood remains within certain limits.
Your kidneys also produce hormones. Hormones are substances that flow through the blood to other parts of the body and other organs tell them what to do. Your kidneys make a hormone that bone marrow incentive to make red blood cells. The kidneys also make a hormone, "renin" called, which plays a role in the regulation of blood pressure. The function of renin is the prevention of a too low blood pressure. When renal impairment is often made too much renin, which has high blood pressure and damage to blood vessel walls as a result. Furthermore, your kidneys make sure that the prehormoon vitamin D3 is converted into active vitamin D. This vitamin plays an important role; it namely sure that the body can absorb calcium in the bones.
Kidney and blood pressure
It's not just kidney disorders that can raise blood pressure. The reverse is also possible: high blood pressure can damage the kidneys, which results in a downward spiral. If your blood pressure for a long time is too high, it may damage the blood vessels and thereby gradually narrowing. This indicates reduced blood flow, even to the kidneys. This causes kidney damage, causing the kidneys work less and have more and more difficult to filter waste from the blood. This has the result that you renal function deteriorates. Your kidneys then make fabrics to maintain blood flow, but these agents raise blood pressure even more and then come full circle: the higher blood pressure blood vessels have to endure it even harder, etc. As a result of this process going. kidneys badly.
It appears that about 1 in 5 people with high blood pressure suffer from chronic kidney damage. If you suffer from high blood pressure load, it is advisable to check every year to let your kidneys. If you're there on time, kidney damage is often limiting. The doctor can perform this check by looking at the amount of protein in your urine. He can also perform blood tests to determine the kidney function. When chronic kidney damage is identified, then your doctor may decide to prescribe medications.
- Lack of blood supply. Lack of blood flow takes place by low blood pressure. For example, this can be caused by a large bleeding elsewhere in the body. Another common cause is dehydration due to diarrhea or vomiting. This causes the pressure falls away in the kidneys and, therefore, the kidney filters are no longer able to perform their work.
- An ignition. An infection can result in the kidney filters may be damaged.
- A blockage. A blockage has the result that the kidneys, the urine can not be disposed of properly, which causes congestion. Too large prostate, stone, or a tumor are possible causes.
Chronic renal damage is most common. The course is often insidious. Chronic kidney damage develops gradually and can have several causes. The most common causes are:
- inflammation of the kidneys;
- diabetes; or
- high blood pressure.
Furthermore, the literature that smoking and obesity have a negative impact on the disease process. It is known that smoking damages the blood vessels to and in the kidneys, making the kidneys less able to do their work.
It appears that in the Netherlands, approximately 1 in 10 people suffer from "hidden kidney damage. The kidney damage evidenced by tiny traces of protein in the urine. Furthermore, it appears that about 1 kidney damage on the Dutch 20 with the loss of renal function. Chronic kidney damage, although not curable, but proper treatment can slow the deterioration of kidney function. The risk of kidney damage can decrease by:
- healthy eating and maintaining a healthy weight;
- so use as little salt as possible;
- not smoking;
- enough exercise; and
- Drink alcohol in moderation.
These lifestyle recommendations also help to prevent high blood pressure and type II diabetes, two diseases which in itself can lead to kidney damage.