In 1802 and 1803 Ludwig van Beethoven composed his 3rd symphony, also called Eroica. This symphony says a lot about the connection of Beethoven with Napoleon. It's a symphony with many different and extreme feelings, so does the Romantic traits. This makes it a revolutionary symphony, matching the time in which it was composed.
Beethoven has the political events of his time, the most important of the French Revolution and the reign of Napoleon closely monitored. He made it plain that he espoused the ideals of the French Revolution: liberty, equality and fraternity. That did not mean that he has nothing with the nobility wanted to do. Instead, he had many noble patrons. Beethoven thought Napoleon the ideals of the French revolution which would make; he worshiped Napoleon. Beethoven wrote music that makes you violent aspects of life in a time of war belongs in return. If the French Vienna bombarded with cannon fire, Beethoven often retreated to compose.
Sometimes a comparison is made between Beethoven and Napoleon. Norbert Loeser has it in his book Beethoven ?? ?? For example, several times over the similarities between them. As Napoleon conquered most of Europe, Beethoven conquered the entire realm of music. However, the victory of Beethoven was more durable and paid with fewer sacrifices than the victories of the French emperor. They both had a heroic attitude. Both of them started small and worked his way up to a period of great fame. But their life ends lonely. Beethoven was deaf at the end of its life, sick and could at last no longer work. Napoleon died on St. Helena, isolated from the outside world. They ended under Loeser as they have also started a closed circle.
The 3rd symphony is also called the Eroica ?? ?? mentioned. Beethoven already started in 1802 and completed it in the second half of 1803. Only in the second half of 1804 the piece is first conducted. It is a heroic symphony and Norbert Loeser calls it a double portrait of Beethoven and Bonaparte, the most powerful men and greatest heroes of their time. Beethoven saw in Napoleon the embodiment of the ideals of the revolution. He thought Napoleon the ideas of the revolution in concrete actions would continue. The 3rd symphony was also originally dedicated to Napoleon with the subtitle ?? Sinfonia Grande, intitolata Bonaparte ??. But in 1804 came the turning point for Beethoven. Napoleon crowned himself emperor and thus became an autocrat. Beethoven heard this and was furious. He felt betrayed by his hero. According to his student Ferdinand Ries, he exclaimed: "Now he will join all human rights violated, will only surrender to his own ambition, he will elevate himself above others, become a tyrant." He then tore up the title page with the order and made them ?? Sinfonia Eroica, composta per il sovvenire festeggiare di un grand ?? Uomo ?? . Symphony is thus dedicated to the ideal hero - a Romantic idea.
In another instance of the Eroica, a copy, the words ?? intitulata Bonaparte ?? by scratched so hard that a hole is left in the paper. Below Beethoven wrote later, however, again with pencil ?? Geschrieben auf Bonaparte ??. Three months later he wrote to the publisher Breitkopf & Hartel that the symphony actually Bonaparte ?? ?? is titled. The word ?? really ?? you see that Beethoven symphony is still associated with Napoleon, despite his anger about the fact that Napoleon crowned himself emperor, but did not want it was issued so. Eventually Beethoven carried the symphony to his patron prince Lobkowitz, in whose palace was also the premiere.
This symphony is written for:
Two oboes ?? s
Beethoven's third symphony has four parts:
Allegro con brio
Marcia funebre: Adagio assai
Scherzo: Allegro vivace
Finale: Allegro molto
The first part is fast and fiery. The second part of a symphony is usually a slow movement, but here Beethoven replaced by a funeral march. In time of war and revolution in which Beethoven lived, heard music like funeral marches and hymns, which was the context of Beethoven. For the second part of this symphony, Beethoven was inspired by the Marche lugubre, a famous funeral march of François-Joseph Gossec which was often used for important burials. The third part of the symphony was a dance form. First was a Menuet, but Beethoven replaced it faster Scherzo. The final part is again a fast, faster than the first part. It is a theme with variations.
The symphony takes on average about 50 minutes.