This may take a urine test for bacteria in suspected bladder infection, or a blood test if the doctor thinks of a viral infection such as the flu. In all kinds of materials from the patient can be carried out research: in addition to said urine and blood may also involve, for example, stool, pus, sputum, tissue, and so forth.
It may also be that a "normal" bacterium has ended up in the wrong place and there causes problems. People usually have "good" bacteria with them, such as in the intestine. Urine in the bladder is normally sterile: are no bacteria in it.
If something goes wrong
A problem can arise if there are enteric bacteria, such as E. coli, end up in the bladder. As if they were going to be increased may be located in the bladder within short period of time about one hundred thousand to over one million bacteria per ml. urine located. Causing a bladder infection and usually give symptoms such as pain and burning sensation when urinating, frequent fever and feeling ill. Treatment is now simple: a few days of antibiotics and pain again ago.
In order to provide adequate treatment doctors often ask first laboratory to: in a few days than they know what antibiotics they may prescribe the best to the patient. Not every product is suitable for even the fighting every type of bacteria. Bacteria are also often resistant, especially if there are long-term should be treated: they adapt and then become resistant to certain drugs. It is therefore important that it is properly monitored.
The analyst goes to work
The analyst determines the number of bacteria in the urine: with a special graft-eye is a small, predetermined amount of urine on a nutrient medium gespateld. These soil - a plastic dish containing agar-agar in it - is in an incubator at 36.5 degrees left over night.
If there are bacteria in the urine itself which will increase and after about 18 hours in the incubator visible to the naked eye. Each bacterium grows into a pile of round, which is referred to as a colony. After back-calculate the analyst to know how much the bacteria is in the urine, this is important for the interpretation of the culture.
These colonies can the analyst continue to work the next day to determine which type of bacteria is involved. For this purpose it is necessary to investigate the chemical and biological properties, the bacterium. This is done by means of tests that have been developed by specialized companies. The analyst knows which species can be expected there and has the necessary knowledge of the properties of different types of bacteria.
For example: Bacteria closer look: Staphylococcus aureus
Breeding ground with colonies Then there is the microscope
There is also additional microscopic examination to be done; This also provides more information about what type of bacteria is to be expected from the culture and in what quantity. Then, too, there can be given to the presence of inflammatory cells, which also give an indication of inflammation. See also:
Bacteria further examination: Gram stain
Bacteria closer look: morphology under the microscope
Next, can then be investigated for which the bacterium is antibiotic sensitive: this is done by testing the bacteria with different kinds of antibiotics.
The result is the result of the culture: an indication of the number of bacteria, for any kind in question and the antibiotics are suitable for writing to. This goes to the doctor.
a four-year bachelor degree that includes this specialization. This training is given at various Universities in the Netherlands.
To be admitted in the first year, you need a HAVO diploma with profile Science / Engineering or Science / Health. You can also be admitted to a vocational level 4 training.
It is also important that you can work accurately and concentrated, a mistake is easily made and it is in this work does to people's health! In terms of employment denotes good in this direction; medical microbiology analysts typically find a job quickly.
In the above example of the urinalysis concerns the "traditional" work like this has been done for years. The developments in this box are ongoing, there is now much automated and there is increasing use of molecular techniques. The training here is obviously taken into consideration and extensive attention to. The box stays in motion, and compared to the past are trained analysts "wider" to hear all new developments.