Origin of life

Health ColaM July 25, 2016 0 16
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Blood Hot, gifftig, murderous radiation. A pleasant place the Earth four billion years ago was not. Yet, life could arise. All had but need something else to go and we had not been there.

Oerlubber

In a blubber mass of methane, hydrogen, ammonia and water emerged four billion years ago the first life forms. Under the influence of radiation formed organic molecules and amino acids. Many did not have it all, but amino acids are essential for building proteins. And which do you need to maintain the structure of a living cell. The first single-celled organisms, Archaea or archaebacteria, did not need oxygen and had no nucleus. Instead, there is a ring-shaped floating-strand DNA by the cell. The era in which Archaea emerged called the Hadean, after the Greek god of the underworld, Hades. That is no coincidence: the earth was still cooling down from its fiery genesis. For millions of years the earth's crust partially remained fluid. The water offered with temperatures reaching hundreds of degrees Celsius little cooling. But feeling in these hellish conditions Archaea are just delicious. They are now still found in geysers and hot springs.

Waste saves lives

You can quite a while without eating or drinking. But survive without oxygen quickly becomes a problem. Yet had winig gescheeld whether there had been nothing to breathe on earth. And heat and ultraviolet radiation had also able to ensure that there is on this planet people could not walk around. By an overproduction of carbon dioxide threatened the earth to change four billion years ago in a sort of Venus. On that planet keep clouds of gas all the heat within the atmosphere. Venus is therefore too hot to live on. On Earth occurred young bacteria same thing happened here. Micro-organisms in the oceans took in carbon dioxide and made of limestone. Blue-green algae began 3.5 billion years ago, also produce oxygen. A waste product to them of vital importance to us. Oxygen took an increasing part of the air space. There was only one problem to be solved: the ultraviolet rays that hit the Earth's surface. And it affects. The oxygen molecule consists of two oxygen atoms. Those hit by UV radiation separately. For example, create a new connection of three atoms: O³ or tewel ozone. Little by little emerged as the ozone layer which stops the UV-radiation. New rounds, new opportunities for new life forms.

Sample cell

Around 3.8 billion years ago began to tangle the number of bacteria to form a new cell. Leather independent organization took a job in itself. The protein revealed a structure and nutritional substances. The chloroplast ensured the conversion of sunlight. Without this 'chloroplast' plant had had a very different color. The mitochondria were annexed by the new sample cell. They convert nutrients into energy. None of the cell in a complex organism can no mitochondria. An ordinary cell houses soon thousands of these "powerhouses". If a cell in your body is involved in food transformation, that number could increase to 20,000.
The merger was 1.4 billion years ago, complete with the arrival of the eukaryotes: organisms with cells that contain a nucleus. Eukaryotes are the ancestors of all complex life forms. Without them there would be no plants or animals exist, and the earth would be inhabited only by small viruses and bacteria.

Homebuilders

Blue-green algae, the "oxygen factories' of our earth, spread over all the oceans. Billions of years they remained relatively intact, until the first protozoa emerged. As these single-celled creatures are quite unique. They bhoorden among the earliest living creatures that feed on organic material.
The first million years of their existence the protozoa swam naked. 570 million years ago, this changed in these foraminifera. These are animal-like protozoa that mineral learned to build houses. They therefore have a calcareous skeleton with several rooms. These protozoa feed through holes in their limestone shell. They are found in warm waters. For lovers of seafood coming from this kind of protozoa is another memorable moment in history: the ancestor of the mussel was born.

The arrival of the jellyfish

Between 500 and 600 million years ago the evolution of life in a stroomversnellig landed. Protozoans were spontaneously bind together and formed sponges, the Porifera. But also arose at the beach visitors as the beloved jellyfish. This mass of blue and white wires is about eight centimeters long and is called bathocyroe fosteri. It is one of the most common species of jellyfish.

Eukaryotes on the move

Without eyes, ears or touch resemble the unicellular laggards, as Radiolaria, to have no chance against the multicellular. However, there were smaller eukaryotes 570 million years ago, also new developments. Can not hear them, but they learned other ways stimuli from outside to pick up. Some eukaryotes take for instance thermal and electromagnetic conditions where. That is very important for unicellular organisms that rely on photosynthesis. If you know where it is warmer you can go there to swim. Radiolaria are found in all oceans as plankton. You can recognize them by the two-sidedness of their cells. Inside is the so-called and cytoplasm, outside the ectoplasm.

Suicide Beestje

He is no more than two millimeters in size, but this Caenorhabditis elegans wrote evolutionary history. And called as the first animal to which the cells commit suicide after a certain time. If a group of cells within a multicellular creature at random continues to grow, is that the death of the entire organism to have a result. Almost all larger multicellular organisms also have this function suicide. If that breaks down, it has fatal consequences. You can see that in humans. Cells that continue to divide, but, are a malignant tumor. It is still unknown when this worm VOO first reared its head.
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