Type 2 diabetes deserves its nickname of fat diabetes. Excess weight, caused by a diet too rich in fats and sugars, promotes its development. What prevention set up if you are a person at risk?
In late October 2009, Medicare estimated that overweight people are five times more likely to have diabetes type 2 than those of normal weight, and up to ten times greater in obese people. However, no link has been established between the dietary imbalances and type 1 diabetes.
Triggers a genetic predisposition
Overweight and obesity act as triggers: "They are major factors expression of type 2 diabetes in 10% of the French population genetically predisposed to develop," says Professor Patrick Vexiau, Head of Diabetology the Saint-Louis Hospital in Paris.
In 2007, 80% of the 2.2 million type 2 diabetics French are overweight or obese, according to the ENTRED study published by the National Institute of Health Surveillance. Overweight and constitutes "the major modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes." Remember, a person is said to be overweight if their BMI by height squared) is between 25 and 29.9. There is talk of obesity when the BMI is greater than or equal to 30.
Abdominal obesity, monitor
Intra-abdominal fat, localized around the waist, especially increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
"Abdominal obesity indicates that excess fat is stored in the liver, says Professor Patrick Vexiau. This fatty liver develops a resistance to insulin and term insulin deficiency, that worsen with time. "Abdominal obesity therefore promotes the onset of insulin resistance, the first stage of type 2 diabetes, before insulinodéficience.
Scientists believe that this risk factor is overweight when the waist circumference exceeds 102 cm in men, 88 cm for women. The Roche ObEpi 2006 survey and reported that 30% of the French population is at or above this threshold.
A diabetes prevention healthy diet
There is no food antidiabète miracles. However, people predisposed to type 2 diabetes can reduce the risk of onset of the disease by adopting a healthy lifestyle. Namely: a varied diet, combined with regular physical activity.
Fats and sugars too
"Sugar is often demonized. However, excess fat in the diet plays an even more important role in the onset of type 2 diabetes, "said Patrick Vexiau, secretary general of the French Diabetes Association. "The sugar will lead to sudden increases in blood glucose levels in the blood, while fats are a chronic insulin resistance factor in the long term, the effect on overweight. "
The GI diet good option?
The GI diet, based on calculating the glycemic load of each food, is sometimes used to prevent diabetes. "This scheme is difficult to use in everyday life, because when you take a meal, all food is mixed. This fact vary their glycemic load, "says the dietician Oulhadj Fatima.
"Rather than impose too large abrupt changes, better change their habits carefully, taking full meals, limit snacking, gradually wean sweetness ..." The goal is to approach gradually the recommendations of National Health and Nutrition Program: five fruits and vegetables a day, three dairy, a starchy food at each meal ...
- National Institute of Health Surveillance, ENTRED 2007-2010 study, involving 8,926 diabetic adults residing in metropolitan France.
- Roche ObEpi 2006 national epidemiological survey on overweight and obesity, conducted by Roche in collaboration with INSERM and the Hotel-Dieu, with a sample of 20,000 households representing the French population of ordinary households.
- Site of the Department of Health and INPES.