Pollution from ships

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On board a ship, there are many activities both in port and at sea, which may cause environmental pollution. The crew of a ship is to do as much as possible to avoid contamination of the environment.

Environmental pollution in the harbor

In the port environmental pollution can be caused by leakage during bunkering of heavy oil, diesel oil or lubricating oil or in issuing sludge. In this work, therefore, always be someone who keeps an eye on whether there is a leak. In the case of a leak to the bunker during bunkering barge is immediately required to stop the pump, by a leakage during dispensing of sludge is immediately on-board the emergency stop of the sludge pump is pressed that is present in the bunker station.
To prevent environmental pollution during bunkering, on many ships the scuppers should be made close to deck, some ships have separate bunker station that is not connected to the deck then does not have to happen. However, should there be present laps in the bunker station to immediately clean up the leaked oil on board, so that in no way can be more in the water.
Hydraulic oil can come on deck in port by a leaking Tugmaster or a leaking winch. The dekdrains can be put on two positions on overboard and toward a tank. If there are a lot of oil on deck is located so environmental pollution can be prevented by the drains to be converted to the tank, the tank can be emptied with the aid of the bilgewaterseparator.
Oil spill in the harbor life goes in the water, such as plankton and fish death. The coast at the port is smeared with oil, with the result that birds and other animals that get in and around the harbor life within the oil or get smeared with oil.
The bunkering of urea in the Port, in the bunkering of urea is not mind if something is spilled. Urea is used in the catalytic converter to clean up the exhaust gases and is environmentally friendly.

Environmental pollution at sea

At sea, environmental pollution caused by the dumping of waste, through the exhaust and while working with the bilgewaterseparator example because it does not work well, even at sea can obviously prevent leaks a winch on deck hydraulic oil.
Environmental pollution by the dumping of waste can be easily avoided, by dumping waste in the sea but not to issue in a harbor. The environmental pollution caused by the exhaust gases on board some vessels minimized by catalyzing the exhaust gases with urea. Environmental pollution by bilgewaterseparator can be reduced by always checking the separator for proper operation and 15 ppm cells well to keep clean. When leakage of a winch are the same measures taken at sea and in port.
At sea pollution by oil less impact than in the harbor because the oil here can be spread over a larger area. Also in the sea will die fish and plakton. The plankton die because by the oil film does not have enough light to live and to make oxygen, fish and sea creatures that plankton eat will die from a lack of food and getting inside of oil, will now also the fish and marine animals which die of these plankton-eating marine life to a shortage of food. The marine oil pollution also affects the birds. Seabirds that find themselves in an oil puddle drowning because they can no longer float on the water or just go kill the oil they ingest. If oil reaches the shore is true for shorebirds basically the same as for the seabirds.

Legislation to prevent pollution

Prevention of Pollution from Ships
This can be found in the legislation of band 4 for Shipping.
General provisions
Discharge Prohibition and facilities
Article 5
This article states that it is prohibited to discharge a pollutant into the sea, except in the cases and in the manner established by a governmental decree. The rules may vary according to the different rules catergoriën ships sail sea areas, making travel or transport hazardous substances concerned are given an order in council. The rules in the order in council also apply to foreign ships in Dutch territorial waters.
Article 6
The administrators of a port that should worry appointed by order in council for adequate facilities suitable for the reception of residues of harmful substances from ships to which the discharge ban in force
Rules for ships
Article 7
In general order establishes requirements on directors which the construction, furnishing and equipping of a ship must meet to prevent and limit the discharge of harmful substances.
Article 10
In the general order in council for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships rules are set with regard to:
  • the board required the presence of instructions, directions for use and warnings.
  • Stowage, the method of packaging and labeling of hazardous substances and the relevant cargo documents
  • The board required the presence and capacity of measuring and recording equipment, and the use thereof.
  • The onboard performing actions with regard to harmful substances and residues thereof as well as related operations.

Obligations of the master
Article 11
The captain must ensure that keeps a journal on board where operations are registered with regard to the transport and discharge of harmful substances.
Decision preventing oil pollution from ships
This is found in band 4 Legislation for Shipping.
Provisions to reduce pollution resulting from operations
Article 9 Arrangements of discharge of oil
Subject to Articles 10 and 11 and the provisions of the second paragraph, any discharge into the sea of ​​oil residues or oily mixtures from ships is prohibited, unless it complies with all the following conditions:
  • for a ship that no oil tanker, with a tonnage of 400 tons or more and for an oil tanker as far as a discharge of oil residues or oily mixture from the bilges of the machinery spaces, except for the bilges of cargo pump room unless mixed with oil cargo residue:
  • The ship is not located in a special area
  • The ship is proceeding en route
  • The oil content of the effluent without dilution does not exceed 15 parts per million
  • The vessel, the monitoring and control system and equipment for the filtration of oil in operation.

  • Article 9 paragraph 2 is about a ship other than an oil tanker, with a tonnage of less than 400 tons
    A special area is a sea in which the following special in this Decision prescribed methods for the prevention of marine pollution by oil is required. Under these particular areas are included:
    • Mediterranean Sea; the Mediterranean Sea itself and the gulfs and seas therein with the boundary between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea constituted by the parallel of 41º latitude and the western boundary is formed by the Strait of Gibraltar at the meridian of 5º36 ?? west longitude.
    • the Baltic Sea; the Baltic Sea proper with the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland and the entrance to the Baltic Sea bounded by the parallel of the Skaw in the Skagerrak at 57º44,8 ?? North.
    • the Black Sea; the Black Sea, where the border between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea constituted by the parallel of latitude 41º.
    • the Red Sea; the Red Sea proper with the Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba, in the south by the rhumb line between Ras si Ane and Huns Murad
    • the Persian Gulf; the sea area north west of the rhumb line between Ras al Hadd and Ras al Fasteh.
    • the Gulf of Aden; the sea area between the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea bounded to the west by the rhumb line between Ras si Ane and Husn Murad and bounded on the east by the rhumb line between Ras Asir and Ras Fartak
    • the Antarctic; the sea area south of 60º South latitude.

    No discharge into the sea of ​​oil residues or oily mixtures may contain chemicals or other substances in quantities or concentrations that are harmful to the marine environment. The oil residues which can not be discharged in accordance with the gene which is defined in this article, must be retained on board or discharged to reception facilities at sea.
    Article 16 Surveillance and control system and equipment to filter oil
    Each ship with a tonnage of 10,000 tons or more is equipped with equipment for the filtration of oil-containing mixtures, and with a device for an alarm, and an automatic stop in case the oil content of the liquid to be discharged is greater than 15 parts per million.
    Article 20 Oil Record Book
    Any ship with a tonnage of 400 tonnes or more, must be equipped with an Oil Record Book Part 1. Oil Record Book should, as appropriate for each tank separately, to be completed every time, and the following operations carried aboard all vessels:
    • ballasting or cleaning of oil fuel tanks
    • the discharge of contaminated ballast water or wash water from tanks referred to under 1
    • the removal of oil residues
    • the discharge or release of bilge water which has accumulated in machinery spaces

    Article 26 Shipboard oil pollution
    Each ship has oil tanker with a tonnage of 400 tons or more, has an approved marine oil pollution emergency plan on board.
    A marine oil pollution emergency plan includes at least:
    • the procedure that the captain or any other crew member who is in charge of the ship to follow for reporting an oil pollution incident
    • A list of authorities or persons to be notified in case of an oil pollution incident
    • a detailed description of the measures which should immediately take the crew to reduce the outflow of oil resulting from an incident as much as possible
    • the procedure and contact person on board the ship for coordinating the measures on board with national and local authorities in combating oil pollution

    Decision preventing pollution by garbage from ships
    Article 3 Discharge of garbage outside special areas
    The discharge into the sea of ​​all plastics, including at least understood ropes and nets made of plastic and plastic garbage bags is prohibited. The discharge of garbage shall be made as far as possible from the nearest land, discharge of garbage is prohibited in any case if the distance to the nearest land is less than:
    • 25 nautical miles in the case of dunnage, coating and verpakkinsmateriaal it will float
    • 12 nautical miles in the case of food scraps and other garbage including paper products, rags, glass, metal, bottles, crockery and similar waste. This waste may be discharged into the sea after it passes through a degradable or grinding installation is conducted in such a way that it is broken off or crushed garbage a screen with holes of up to 25 mm can pass. The discharge of such waste should be done as far as possible from the nearest land and is prohibited if the distance to the nearest land is less than 3 nautical miles /

    Article 8c Garbage Journal
    Any ship with a tonnage of 400 tons of garbage a journal on board. Of any discharge or complete burning of garbage on the date of discharge or burning reported in the journal garbage, stating:
    • the date and time when to pass the discharge or burning
    • the position of the vessel at the time of discharge or combustion
    • a description of the discharged or burned garbage, together with an estimate of their quantity.