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Prostate cancer refers to a malignant tumor that originates in the prostate gland. The causes of this cancer are poorly defined, but there are risk factors such as age, family history, diet ...
Prostate cancer begins when prostate cells undergo genetic mutations and proliferate very rapidly and uncontrollably. They eventually form a mass that continues to grow and which is called a tumor. The latter can be distributed in other organs.
As it surrounds the urethra, a prostate tumor can interfere with urination. This disease develops slowly over several years.
At what age occurs for prostate cancer?
The risk of prostate cancer increases with age:
- After 45 years if family history or men of African or Caribbean
- From 50 years for others.
This cancer is the third cause of death from tumors in humans.
The causes of this tumor are not yet well defined.
Certain prostate cancer risk factors are recognized:
- Family history;
- Diet, it is too rich in animal fats.
Difficulty urinating more often reflect a prostate problem requiring a medical examination, even if the original can be a single adenoma.
Blood in urine or any other abnormal event requires urological visit.
It still happens that prostate cancer is revealed by the presence of bone metastasis.
Less frequently, it is the laboratory analysis of an apparently benign tumor operated and removed by the surgeon, which identifies the presence of cancerous cells.
However, most of the time, there are no symptoms, and this cancer is detected during a medical examination through a routine digital rectal examination and a blood test. Depending on the outcome of these tests, a biopsy may be proposed.
To detect prostate cancer at an early stage, it is advisable to men from 50, regularly undergo a medical examination to determine the presence of a prostate problem likely to progress to cancer.
For men with a family history of prostate cancer, it is necessary to start this screening from the age of 45 years.
For good prevention, it is useful to ensure your diet by reducing the consumption of meat and fats and favoring the consumption of fruits and vegetables.
A diagnosis of prostate cancer at an early stage achieved increases the chance of cure of this disease resulting in nearly 9000 deaths per year.
The key consideration is the prostate biopsy. Slightly painful and unpleasant, it usually does not require hospitalization.
An ultrasound probe into the rectum slid allows to visualize the prostate and suspicious areas that will be analyzed. Then an apparatus having at its end a fine needle is then used to make samples.
Many are made to get some kind of prostate mapping and assessing the significance of the possible tumor. The samples are then analyzed in the laboratory.
If a tumor is confirmed, other tests may be performed to check for other tumor locations.
Prostate Cancer Treatment depends on the stage of its evolution, its type, but also the general health of the patient and his age.
Prostate cancer: Operation
This is the solution which in the long run, offers the most chance of recovery. It can be proposed when the tumor remains localized within the prostate in a male young enough. Although surgical techniques are generally better and better controlled, intervention can have important consequences, such as impotence or urinary incontinence problems.
External radiation therapy
It is also often used and can bring great chance of healing. The new targeted radiation techniques used to limit the most frequent complications. The rays directed at the prostate affects neighboring organs and tissues that could then be the cause of digestive disorders, urinary or sexual.
Other prostate cancer treatments
There are many, starting with the Curia therapy. It is implanted in the prostate of small radioactive seeds capable of destroying cancer cells. It can give very good results especially for small tumors.
Other possibilities: drugs based on hormones that can significantly slow the progression of the disease.
Specific techniques such as focused ultrasound are still currently being investigated.
And after ?
Medical supervision is essential.
Blood samples for assaying PSA are regularly performed. Depending on the outcome, further explorations are planned.Check our detailed fact sheets