Radioactivity: physical phenomenon

Science dukehuge August 8, 2016 0 0
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Radioactivity is a natural phenomenon intressant. It is also dangerous and has some knowledge of this subject is a necessity

Radioactivity

When the phenomenon of radioactivity send unstable nuclei radiation. This radiation can be divided into several groups:
Alpha radiation
These are helium nuclei at a rate corresponding to about 5% of the speed of light. a-ionizing radiation has great power, but a small doordingend power. Thanks to this little penetrating power will through the air but a few centimeters go far. Radioactive particles having a radiation are therefore not hazardous as long as they are kept at a distance. If a radioactive particle with a radiation in the body does, however, this can be fatal.
Beta Radiation
These are fast electrons with a speed of 30% to 99% of the speed of light. These particles have a small ionizing power, but a great penetrating power. This can make it several meters go far. At b-radiation invalidate a neutron into a proton.
Gamma-Radiation
In contrast to the a-b-radiation and the radiation-g-radiation consists not only of photons of particles. They have a very small ionizing power and a tremendous penetrating power. Thanks to they can come very far this tremendous penetrating power.
X-ray
Like the radiation-g, these are photons, containing only the X-ray photons with less energy. A special feature of this radiation is that it has a fluoride detection capability, so that substances will emit visible light.
Background radiation
This is a combination of radiation from the surroundings.
When expressing a unit is the amount of radioactivity becquerels use. The abbreviation of Becquerel is Bq. If there expires every second one atom is the radioactive substance having a value of 1 Bq.
Radioactivity is dangerous due to the ionizing power. Radioactive radiation can ionize substances. It changed the substance of composition, which can have negative effects.

Use

Radioactivity can also be used. An example of this X-ray radiation is in hospitals. These X-rays X-rays may be made ?? s making only the bones of a patient seen. This is because the radiation can not through the bone and through the rest of the body though. Then particles are shot through your body, these come at a photo album, except in the places where your bones are. This way you can be viewed bones without the doctor having to cut open. Also, radiation is used in the fight against cancer.

History

In 1895 W. Röntgen discovered a new type of radiation. Then called radiation X-rays, but this radiation to discover his name, the X-rays. Becquerel afterwards discovered that there was a new physical process, namely radioactivity. The unit of radioactivity is named after him. Pierre and Marie Curie discovered after the fluorinating ability of this radiation.

Half Time

Half-life is the time where the radiation has decreased by 50%.

Halving Thickness

The half-thickness is the thickness of a substance which is required to halve the radioactive radiation.


Protection against radiation

To protect you from radiation is often used a shield of lead, water or concrete. Also special plastics have been developed which provide protection against b-radiation. In these shields, use is made of the above-mentioned half-thickness.


Symbol for radioactivity

The symbol for radioactivity at the top of the article.
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