Lice are since there are people and animals. And so it is not surprising that there are also herbs against lice. The louse has accompanied mankind through the centuries. If it were a pet. According to some, even a valuable pet. It would ensure that the excess and toxic fluids are sucked out of the body. Therefore, they were once considered an effective remedy for jaundice, toothache and dropsy.
One of the oldest lice agents are compositions prepared from the seed or lice Semen Sabadillae, which as tincture, ointment, or acetic acid extract was prescribed. It used to be the most active agent that there was, but it was also dangerous.
The Sabadilla Seed comes from Sabadilla officinarum, also called Schoenocaulon officinale, belonging to the family of Liliaceae. The name is derived from the Spanish "cebada" which means barley, because of the appearance of the fruit stand. The plant is native to Mexico, Guatemala and Venezuela, grows in damp grassy places, up to 1000 m height. There are probably also been cultures of the louse herb. The Mexican Hernandez stated the plant first, followed by the Spanish doctor Monardes, they got hold of in 1572 for the first time in Seville and knew the plant in Mexico was ge-used as an etching agent in wounds with gangrene. In 1651 appeared a verhande-ling with a picture, which apparently did not attract much attention, because in 1705 Valentini knew the seed yet; in 1718 and 1726 says "Abraham Vater" in his writings that the seed is rare. In 1726 France was known as the so-called "Kapuziner Pulver" composed of Sabadilzaad, Delphinium staphisagriae seed and tobacco. It was processed with fat to an ointment. In 1759 the Sabadil being first officially mentioned in the "Strassburger Taxe" and in 1771 in the Swiss Pharmacopoeia. After the discovery of the alkaloid vera trine in the plant growing interest still.
Cevadilla. Schoenocaulon officinale. Melanthium sabadilla. Veratrum officinale. Helonias officinalis. Sabadilla officinarum. Asagraea officinalis. Sabadillermer. The plant was named by Schlechtendahl "Veratrum officinale." Linnaeus, in his "Materia Medica" of 1772 on Sabadilla. In 1839, one speaks "Holonias officinalis" while Lindley in 1839 the name veran-dert in "Asagraea officinalis", the researcher Asa Gray that this worship was apparently not served, because he came up with the name Schoenocaulon officinalis derived from "schoinos" trim and "caulos" tribe.
It is a tuberous crop from which grass-like leaves grow long, one and a half meters long and 12 cm wide, within which a 1 to 2 meter high onbebladerde flower stalk emerges, filled with dry marrow. The flower shape is a flowering spike with small short. ternary stemmed green yellow flowers in the armpit of small bracts. The upper flowers are masculine, the lower ambiguous. The stamens are in two whorls of three. The ovary is driehokkig and bovenstandig. The fruit is a capsule driehokkige light brown, usually with two to five lan cet shaped brownish-black seeds. The seeds are oblong to lance-shaped, slightly curved.
Statistical data of some hundred years ago, give us an impression of the former lice problem. As exports from Caracas was in 1881 127.000 kg in Hamburg was even sold 210 000 kg in 1909.
It was a chemist Wilhelm Meissner, who alkaloid sabadilline in 1818, also called vera trine discovered. He was a bit lax with his publication, which came out in 1821 and thus Bright Tier Caventou and had him officially in 1819 when she found it quite independent vera trine. The most common alkaloid is cevadine or crystallized vera trine. It was described by Merck in 1855. The plant contains about 4% of a alkaloïdmengsel which could be gradually unraveled after laborious research. The base fabric is called cevadine. It is a muscle and nerve toxin that paralyzes. Symptoms include skin irritation, sneezing, then follow dizziness and vomiting tendency. Heart rate is more powerful, there occurs reduction in blood pressure, and death may follow from respiratory or heart failure.
In the 18th century it was also first used as anthelmintic and even it was used to treat rheumatism, although it appeared that soon too dangerous.
The lice are still there, if it is to a much lesser extent. We also owe a little to the use of the louse herb or essential to improve hygiene? The plant is still there, even though we no longer use it against him critters.
Partial synthesis of 3-O-vanilloylveracevine, an alkaloid from Insecticidal Schoenocaulon officinale. István Ujvárya, Corresponding Author Contact Information, ?? and John E. Casidab. Ecological biochemistry
Schoenocaulon Alkaloids. I. Active Principles of Schoenocaulon officinale. Cevacine and Protocevine1,2S. Morris Kupchan, David Lavie, CV Deliwala, BYA Andoh J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1953, 75, pp 5519 5524 ??
Alm T Schoenocaulon officinale in Norwegian folk tradition. Blyttia 61, 99-104. Contact: Alm, Torbjorn; Fagenhet for Botanikk, Tromso Museum, Universitetet i Tromso, N-9037 Tromso
Anonymous Sabadilla as an insecticide. Bull Imp Inst 44, 102-4.