School refusal is a common problem among schoolchildren. It is not the same as truancy contrary. Where truants choose to instead of attending classes to do something more fun, like going into town, school refusers stay home because they no longer dürfen to school. Parents are often aware of school refusal, but did not intervene. In this article, is given on the basis of individual and environmental factors explanations for this problem.
There are many internal factors that can indirectly underlie the later school refusal, starting with the temperament. The temperament of a child concerns basic personality traits such as extroversion and introversion, who at an early age are reflected. An introverted child walks for example to get the risk of social isolation, making it an easy target of bullying and therefore no longer dare to go to school. The same may be true for a negative self-image or low self esteem. In addition, it is possible that the child is not well able to deal with social problems. If the child has emotional problems opkropt is a solution to the problem away. Possible learning difficulties may also contribute to school refusal. The child may be bullied because of his academic skills or shame do not dare go to school. Because of the bullying may develop an anxiety disorder in the child, causing the child avoids social situations. This is a factor that can maintain school refusal, because the child is afraid of the social environment at school.
Hereditary factors within the family influence individual factors, especially as anxiety and depression occurs in family circles. The family history may play school refusal in the map. In both cases that Kawabata in his article named mother the child too much protection. In addition, the mutual relationship between the parents is important. If this relationship is poor and, in particular, where the parents are separated this has an influence on the child. Another problem is the lack of communication that especially in the first case comes to light. Fearing the father's reaction to the problem was silenced, thus creating solutions failed to materialize. That's a shame, because the causes are not addressed in this way and maintained the issue.
A change of school is radical and in both cases the children could adapt to the new environment is difficult. Both had few social contacts at school to which they could pull themselves and moreover they were bullied. The study of Inamura gave 20% of the school refusers social relationships and 50% being bullied as a reason why they no longer attend school. These are, in other words two causal and direct effects on the school refusal. After all, if the child would not be bullied, the child would probably just continue to go to school. Another factor that calls Kawabata in his article is social exclusion, with the entire class completely ignores the child, with all its consequences. The way the school notice the bullying and deal with them is important to prevent bullying. For example, teachers do nothing but the child also feels let down by them.
In addition to the family and the school is also important in any community the child grows up. The literature often distinguishes between Western and Eastern cultures in relation to the importance of social relationships. In Eastern cultures, such as Japan, the high social expectations and the importance of social relationships vital to the dignity of the individual. In addition, high homogeneity in Japan in the vaandal. Every person that is with it withdraws risking social exclusion.
School Refusers are emotionally very upset and feel unwell and anxious at the thought of school. Escape over a long period they were in school to stay home then. Predispositions, such as temperament or genetic factors within the family have an indirect effect on school refusal, because this construction makes the child vulnerable to dealing with social problems. In addition, there are also factors that maintain the school refusal, such as bottling up of the problems, a lack of communication or the development of anxiety disorders, whereby a solution is found for the social problems of the child. Bullying or social exclusion of children has a direct influence on the reason why the child no longer attends school. At the same time it became clear that these immediate causes are only the tip of the iceberg and that it is first important to mainly indirect familial circumstances that have made it vulnerable child for later social problems to tackle. In this regard, the bidding result of the two cases in the article of Kawabata a hopeful perspective.