Artificial fibers in clothing and other textiles are not indispensable. Semi-synthetic fibers are based on a natural raw material cellulose. At the end of the 19th, the first man-made fiber was made and this was called artificial silk. Since that time, more of these types of fibers come to be used for, among other garments and home textiles. These fibers have many good properties, but also a number of disadvantages. A number of species in a row.
Photo: viscose fabric increases greatly
Artificial fibers are textile fibers, which are made via an artificial process, so that a fiber produced which does not occur in nature. There are man-made fibers which have a natural raw material as the base, this may be referred to as semi-synthetic fibers. For the production of these synthetic fibers, use is made of spinnerets. A spinneret is a cap in which microscopic holes are made through which a liquid is going to be used as a raw material, and which subsequently solidifies into threads in another liquid. The first semi-synthetic fibers were made at the end of the 19th century.
During the 19th century, the demand for affordable textile increasing because the population rapidly increased. In addition, to make the silk industry in France in 1860, suffered from a disease that makes the silkworm was impaired. The work of a number of researchers focused on finding a cheap raw material in the nature, and a technique to make fibers of this. This resulted in the manufacture of cellulose, which forms the basis of semi-synthetic fiber. For the processing of cellulose fiber to the French chemist Chardonnet invented the technique in 1884. His invention made sure there was a whole industry of what was known from the beginning rayon.
Cellulose is a starch-like substance found in plants, especially trees, which gives it strength. Cellulose for rayon industry is extracted from conifers grown in special purpose forests. After a number of operations of the timber there remains a slurry of cellulose and water, a kind of porridge. After the water from this is pressed cellulose flakes remain on which are supplied to the plants in artificial silk sheets. Here, the cellulose from a viscose solution is created by means of a number of chemical additives and processing. This viscous liquid is eventually transformed into a wire. This is called rayon yarn, also known as viscose. This industry is now found mainly in low-wage countries. The yarns are used in the clothing industry.
Acetate: basically cellulose acetate is light, soft, smooth, yet solid. This material is very similar to natural silk and is very flexible, shrink and wrinkle slightly, and is fast drying. It allows air and sweat. Washing by hand or machine as delicate to 30 degrees is possible, wet washing is however difficult because it loses its strength. Clothing from 100% acetate can be better brought to the dry cleaner. It may only slightly be ironed. Read the label. It is often used as material for lining or to lighten other substances. It is usually mixed with cotton, wool or nylon. Never use acetone to remove stains from acetate, which dissolves the tissue!
Cupro, also made from cellulose, is very similar to side by the shine and luxurious look. It is smooth and wrinkle little. It is a strong fabric that is washable at 40 degrees. Hang wet, do not wring, and smooth on the inside as it is still somewhat moist. Yet generally the advice given to bring it to the dry cleaners, see label.
Lyocell is made in an environmentally friendly manner from cellulose. This material with satin finish is strong, stronger than cotton and viscose. It is highly absorbent, very soft to wear and cool on the skin. This substance can be well washed, and up to 60 degrees hardly shrinks. It is used to include T-shirts and often blended with cotton and polyester.
Modal is made from cellulose from beech tree and has a smooth, soft fabric. It is basically an improved version of viscose their properties. It may contain 50% more water than cotton. Modal shrinks and does not discolour, it can be washed in hot water. The form remains good, it's strong, both wet and dry. It is often used with other fibers such as cotton and is very suitable for sportswear. It is flame-resistant. Especially in the United States, this substance popular.
Is viscose rayon, the fiber originally was called, because it feels like silk. It is a soft, flexible fabric which nonetheless bears as comfortable as cotton. If it is wet it is much less strong, therefore it should be washed very gently, without wringing, rubbing or brushing. The crease rather quickly, which is why it is often mixed with other synthetic fibers such as polyester. As a result, the disadvantages viscose has largely disappeared.
Read more about origin, application, features and maintenance of:
cotton and linen
Wool and silk