Summary Geo Arm & Rich, H1 and H2 havo Exam

Education allnewf December 9, 2016 1 25
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The world is globalizing and rich countries work with poor countries. This chapter is about the cooperation between the United States and Mexico. How these two countries to work together on social, cultural and economic fields. The NAFTA is scrutinized, this partnership should bring more prosperity in the entire region, but came that prosperity everywhere?

§ 1.1 Getting to the border

History
The first people who lived in the area were among the pre-colonial / Indian civilizations. After discovering
America by Columbus, was the colonization started. The region of Mexico and the southern US states, was in Spanish hands. After 1821, the colonies were ceded, and there was a post-colonial period of civil wars. Halfway through the last century much oil is found around the current border area and this continued economic growth. This growth lasted until the oil crisis during the years ?? 70. Then it went badly with Mexico.
Border
The current border was United States and Mexico border in 1848. In 19th century many war. Now 100-kilometer-wide zone with length of more than 3000 kilometers from the Pacific Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico. Along this border are many cities twice cities. Dual cities Cities are two cities that have grown together mutual dependent with each other, with the note that these two urban separated by a border. El Paso - Ciudad Juárez is one of the most famous twin cities. El Paso is located in the southwest of the US state of Texas. In 20th century grew by: cattle, copper, cotton and climate. Ciudad Juárez is growing rapidly. Labor-intensive companies attract many people from rural areas. The city can not meet the growth. Juarez consists of two parts. East with low-paid industrial workers in shabby houses and outside the industrial estates to the east you will find the neighborhoods where the rich people live.
Intersection
The character of the borderland is reflected in the economic, demographic and socio-cultural characteristics. Economic: Mexican region is wealthier than Mexico, US border incorrect. There is here no true Mexican culture, but also no real American culture. The result is a mix culture. The mixed culture expresses itself through the influence of language., Beliefs and rituals. The Mexican towns undergone greater changes than US cities. This is due to the central role of the US Not only cultural arises unit, but also on economic markets. The result is that merge into a single local markets world market.
NAFTA
On January 1, 1994 NAFTA created. An economic partnership between Canada, the United States and Mexico, which is a bit compared to the EU. What is striking about this collaboration is that more wealthy countries to join, then poorer countries. The question is whether it is advantageous or disadvantageous, and for whom?
Advantages of this collaboration is increasing employment, work more efficiently and an increase in income. Disadvantages: NAFTA. The US is afraid of decline in employment in their own country due to the low wages and less stringent environmental requirements in Mexico. Mexican workers are also at risk, because their labor productivity than those of their American neighbors and therefore the Mexicans can not cope with the competition.
10 years of NAFTA
There was a great increase in Mexican imports and exports and foreign investment in Mexico. A doubling of US agricultural exports came to Mexico. Minimum wage Mexico declined, more people below poverty line. This was due to have cheap labor working under poor conditions. The big losers are the Mexican farmers, they can not compete with maize prices in the US The result is a trek to the border area and the US

§ 2.1 maquiladoras

From 1965 there was a foreign policy to attract businesses in the border region with US These companies are assembly plants. Halffabrikatengeïmporteerd be there and be edited and exported finished product. By making end products of intermediate goods creates value addition. By establishing businesses in areas with lower wages means more profit for you. But not only low wages is a pull factor. By entering semis one need to pay import duties and another advantage is that you then only have to pay value added tax on exported goods.
The first maquiladoras were located around the border with the US. The benefits were low wages and close the US The arrival of the assembly there was a wave of migration started from central Mexico to northern Mexico.
Is it better?
After 1965 there was more liberalization. An additional increase was caused by the advent of NAFTA. In the international division of labor is Mexico by low wage an attractive settlement area. This makes Mexico depends on these wealthy countries. Not only manufacturing and research and design departments. Mexico's semi-periphery: does not belong to the rich center, but also not to the periphery.
Shift to the south
In the beginning there were many businesses in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, but also in the rest of Mexico. This shift was from North to South. Minimum wage was lower south, more labor and less influence of the trade unions, there are causes. Mexico one takes environmental concerns is not critical, the ecological capacity has to endure suffering. Not the entire country has benefited from that trade in the maquiladoras. Mexico city, was central to the NAFTA but by shifting the economic center to the north, at the cost of the capital.

§ 2.2 The other side of the coin

The greatest consequence of the establishment of the maquiladoras was a great trek to the border. The first migrants were mostly from Mexico City and the northern part of central Mexico. Now, the migrants come from other parts of the country, especially rural areas of central Mexico.
Juárez
In this city there are many problems with the migration. There are problems with housing, poor facilities in the field of education and health care and the growth the old town has not grown. Like other cities in this region are air pollution and water shortages big problems.
The departure areas
There are also implications for the departure areas. The result is a loss of in agriculture. The income goes down because they can not produce. Remnants live on the money of the people who work in the maquiladoras.
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