Summary Geo, Indonesia Chapter 1 section 1.2 §1.1-

Education dandanflake December 9, 2016 0 86
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In this chapter we will see what relationship exists between the natural and scenic characteristics of the Indonesian archipelago. Among other deals with the characteristics of the Indonesian archipelago, the climatic characteristics of Indonesia, which natural vegetation characterizes Indonesia and what kind of influence the climate in the establishment.

§ 1.1 Unity and diversity

Indonesia is an archipelago which consists of about 13,000 islands, part of which is uninhabited. Indonesia lies between the Indian Ocean, the South China Sea and the Pacific Ocean, and the country is in the width larger than Europe.
Dutch history goes way back when it comes to Indonesia. Seafaring has played an important role in the history of the archipelago. The VOC has had a major impact, but it was not only trade between the West and India, but there was also trading and mixing of peoples and cultures in the area itself. Also had contacts with other parts of the archipelago, India and other parts of Asia.
Faith is very central in Indonesia. Since the beginning of our era, the area is influenced by Hinduism. In the 15th century began from Malacca Islamization. This has ensured that in terms of population Indonesia is the largest Muslim country in the world. Only in Bali, Hinduism can survive. Many wealthy families have fled from Java to Bali, because they did not want to lose their faith.
The first MNO, the VOC was very active in the archipelago. Especially in the trade of spices, where we know the expression expensive still. 400 years ago in 1602 merged the Dutch Republic and the United East India Company which the power of the merchants was bundled trading proceeded smoothly and European competitors had no chance. The VOC was given the exclusive rights to all Indian trade. Until 1800 there was only spice trade from several points on the coast. Then from 1850 the demand for raw materials increased. Therefore, more and more commodities traded on world markets, as coffee, sugar, indigo, tobacco and rubber. Especially in Java, conditions were favorable for commercial agriculture. The climate is such that there can be cultivated throughout the year. The shipping between the Netherlands and Indonesia experienced heyday. However, there was no unity in the archipelago. Dutch East Indies until 1949 remained under Dutch rule. There were increasing problems between different ethnic groups and the Dutch. Within the island structure were mutual contacts by boat connections, but any territory for centuries has had the opportunity on social and cultural fields to develop independently. Each island has therefore developed its own cultural characteristics, which makes it difficult to be a unitary state and stay. A common language, Bahasa Indonesia, the language that is widely used as a common means of communication between people with different mother tongues. The language is fairly easy to assemble and quick to learn. Because of many similarities between languages ​​in the area, this language has become the main language. Now that Indonesia is dependent upon the issue of the unitary state has not been solved. Aceh province wants separation from the state. This separation of the oil and gas-rich Aceh would be severe consequences hebben.Het main island Java where over two thirds of all inhabitants of Indonesia live there and it is the economic and political center of Indonesia.
Population
Indonesia has about 225 million people and 360 different ethnic groups, a large number of religions and languages. Indonesia has one of the largest Chinese communities in Southeast Asia. The Chinese tend to live in the big cities and their number is estimated at about four million people. The economic strength of the Chinese population sometimes leads to social tensions. Chinese have a good network and a large portion of the middle position in the hands. However, they have no political power. Now, approximately 88% of the Indonesian population is Muslim. In Bali Hinduism is the leading religion. Christians are a minority, but locally, particularly in eastern Indonesia, dominates, think of the Moluccas. In remote areas are still nature religions.

§ 1.2 The natural and landscape features

Climate
According Köppensysteem coming three climates:
  • Af-climate: comes in a large part of Indonesia.
  • Aw climate: monsoon climate: in the southeastern part of the archipelago.
  • Cf climate comes in the mountain areas and is surrounded by areas with Af-climate.

The high temperature in Indonesia is due to its location between the two tropics. Indonesia is located for a large part on the equator. Thus the country has around twice a year, a perpendicular position of the sun. The result is that the sun throughout the year at 12 o'clock high in the sky and that the area has no seasons. The annual rainfall in Indonesia is, except in the south, more than 2000 mm. These are increased rains and trim rains. However, the rain in Indonesia can not be compared with precipitation in the Netherlands. Because of lack of mountains in the Netherlands we have no trim rain or rain increases, and that are in Indonesia. The increase rains occur in areas where the Earth's surface warmed by the sun is very strong, so much water vapor is in the air. This is because the air in the course of the day to reach its saturation point. In the mountain regions of Indonesia dominate high precipitation rates through the effect of trim rains. These occur when moist air is forced to rise at a mountain.
In Indonesia, the monsoon blows, a wind that blows for half a year from one direction and the other half a year from the opposite direction. There is a dry season in January and a wet monsoon in July. In July there is a low pressure area over Asia, which was created by the strong warming of the earth's surface. In Australia it is currently winter and there is a high pressure area. Due to the pressure difference will be a flow of air in motion. From the Australian high pressure air flows over Indonesia in the direction of Asia. Due to the rotation of the earth, it has a deviation to the left and to the right from the equator.
Southeastern Indonesia receives in this period not much rainfall. But the region ?? s in Indonesia that are further to the west, it received rainfall. That air is then passed over a much longer path of the warm sea, whereby there can be formed more precipitation.
The wind in January reversed. In Asia, it is winter and there is a high pressure and in Australia it is summer. There it forms a low pressure area. From mainland Asia, the path of the sea very long. The sky takes on those long road much water vapor. Once up the country of Indonesia is increasing the air which causes precipitation. Moreover, the equatorial minimum, which in the course of the year will shift as a result of the rotation of the earth around the sun, the intertropical convergence zone, at that time above the south of Indonesia, so that the extra air rises.
Plantlife
The archipelago is mainly tropical rainforest. However, in large parts of Indonesia this forest disappeared and has been replaced by production and export of hardwoods, housing, infrastructure and agricultural areas. In eastern Indonesia, the alternation of wet and dry months before the onset of a light tropical forest. Along the muddy coasts of Sumatra and Kalimantan include growing mangroves. This is wood that has its roots in water. This area is very vulnerable when it comes to sea level rise. The vegetation in the mountains changes with the altitude, the mountains are better than overgrown as the Alps. This is due to the difference in temperature. The vegetation zones are similar to the plant belts between the equator and the poles.
Natural resources
Indonesia has large mineral wealth: oil and gas, minerals and metals .The operation is often performed by foreign companies, sometimes in cooperation with Indonesian companies. Especially for large investments the Indonesian government promotes this cooperation.
Petroleum and natural gas are mainly gained on Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sumatera and continental shelf of Indonesia. Crude oil and petroleum products constitute the largest source of income for the Indonesian government. On Sumatra much tin. On Sulawesi much nickel. Papua is the largest gold mine in the world. During the extraction of the gold ore silver is also free.
Most people still work in agriculture. A large part of the exports are agricultural products such as rubber, copra, palm oil, tea, coffee, rice, cocoa, tobacco and spices. Also, wood is an important but also illegal export product. Looking at these products can be concluded that it is still going to be a peripheral country. It mainly sells raw materials. Overall, means commodity export periphery and luxury finished center.
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