The civilization of the Hittites

Miscellaneous EViL0nE August 7, 2016 0 4
The Hittites are a mysterious people. For a long time there was absolutely nothing known about them and their writing was illegible, while the founders were of a great empire stretching from Turkey, Syria and Palestine to Mesopotamia.

Ancient Sumerians and Babylonians

The origin of the Hittites is unknown. It is now clear that they spoke an Indo-European language. Their attendance was the end for the ancient Babylonians. And like those Babylonians who had a lot of things inherited from the Sumerians, the Hittites would also take over the culture of the vanquished, that the Sumerian culture influence remained.


By references in the Bible, in Egyptian texts and other clay tablets were European scientists in the early twentieth century to the conclusion that there is such a thing as a Hittite Empire had existed. In 1906 a German expedition took 10 000 clay tablets in Hattusa, the capital of the Hittites, about 210 km south of Ankara. In fairly rapid pace translations were made, but until today there is not a complete dictionary of the Hittite language.


The center of the empire was in Turkey. From 1680 to 1180 BC. Hittite empire was at its peak, and after the Assyrians of Mesopotamia were in their grasp the Hittite cities remained independent until 717 BC. The Assyrians finally took over.


The early history of the Hittites are known by found clay tablets. These begin with the conquests of Pithana king of Kussara or Kussar. Then they continue on Pithana's son, Anitta, who conquered the area in several cities, including the new capital Hattusa.
Ancient Hittite Empire
The foundation of the Hittite Empire is usually attributed to Hattusili l, who conquered a region up to the modern Aleppo. Hattusili was strongly influenced by the local culture in northern Mesopotamia. His son Mursili continued the conquests of his father and even sacked Babylon, which he then gave to his Kassitisch allies. These conquests, however, draw from the rich and Mursili was assassinated and the kingdom descended into chaos. Some of their territories were occupied by other nations. A period of weaker leaders arrived. Around 1500 BC. Telepinu came to power who booked some successes. This brought an end to the period of the "Old Kingdom" and began the phase of the Middle Kingdom, which was characterized by weakness and where little is known.
The New Kingdom
With the coming of the kingdom of the Hittites Tudhaliya goes back in recorded history. He joined alliances with which he Hurrische states Aleppo and took Mitanni and expanded its territory to the west. Another weak period dawned with enemies even Hattusa invaded. Suppiluliuma l was a new strong man, the whole area was once more under his control and with Egypt as the only real power remained in the region. The Egyptians tried to form an alliance through marriage, but the Hittite groom was murdered for his marriage to the widow of Tutankhamen could take place. One of the sons of Suppiluliuma focused on conquering new territories in the west, some scientists even think that cities like Miletus and Achaea tried to take.
The Battle of Kadesh
The power of the Hittites was dependent on their control over trade routes and here was the north of Syria is crucial because the Cilician ports covenant with Mesopotamia. The Egyptians tried to challenge this power under Pharaoh Ramses II. Egyptian clay tablets showed the victory to themselves, but other data indicate that the Egyptians at Kadesh were beaten back by the Hittite king Muwatalli.
Fall of the Hittite Empire
The Assyrians put an end to the Hittite empire, by making use of the fact that the attention of the Hittites was swallowed by the Egyptians. In response to the Assyrian threat locks the Hittites peace with Egypt and formed an alliance by giving the daughter of the king pharaoh Ramses II as a woman. "The treaty of Kadesh 'is one of the oldest treaties in history and captured the final borders of Canaan. The kings Tudhaliya IV and Suppiluliuma ll won the last Hittite victories, but by then it was too late.
Sea Peoples
The "Sea Peoples' came up on the Mediterranean coast and began Hittite areas to take and exit lanes. The Hittites weakened quickly and Hattusa was attacked and burned.
Around 1200 BC. nearly all vanished Hittites from Anatolia, but in northern Syria were a number of Neo-Hittite city-states exist. Later these were occupied by the Assyrians.

Influence of the Hittites

The empire of the Hittites was particularly dependent on trade, making it exert its influence so in the entire area. From Egypt to Greece, they gave their culture, which was in turn based on the culture of the Sumerians, through the entire region, far beyond Mesopotamia.