After the collapse of the Roman Empire shifting centers of culture to the periphery of the former empire, especially in the monasteries of Ireland and England. Unlike England, Ireland was never romanised. However, it became Christianized from the arrival of the Englishman St. Patrick in the fifth century. He founded monasteries and increased the peregrinatio in, pilgrimages with the aim to found new monasteries in the surrounding area. As Scotland is gradually Christianised and Lindisfarne, a small island on the north east coast of England, where many Angles and Saxons lived, people of Germanic descent.
Not long afterward, in the sixth century, there is a place Christianization of the present England from Rome under the leadership of Augustine. He was sent by Pope Gregory. This Augustine founds there the Canterbury diocese. From this diocese leaving a peregrinatio comes in 695 Anglo-Saxon monk Willibrord from Ripon in the Rijnmond, in the Low Countries. After being bishop of the Frisians, then still a pagan nation, was proclaimed he chose Utrecht as the seat and founded the St. Martin's, which he named after a Frankish saint.
The culture which saw the British and southern European missionaries in western Europe was not a big barbarism. Rather, it was a culture with a complex social system, a sophisticated goldsmith and a lively trade with distant peoples. In the English Sutton Hoo, for example, a ship's funeral was from the period from 625 to 633 nC found. It had been the funeral of an important man and found a richly decorated buckle his garnets from India and stained glass from Syria. The interlaced animal motifs show a clear influence from Central Asia. In the same tomb were also further Merovingian gold coins and Byzantine silver bowl found.
The many pilgrimages to the Irish and English missionaries Celtic and Germanic art forms are mixed and then distributed among the new Christians in Europe. Usually, this art is called Hibernosaksische art. Motifs that you mostly find in their goldsmith among Celts and Germans, then come back in the manuscript decorations of their Christian faith. In this art are Celtic trumpet and spiral shapes mixed with Germanic animal and bird motifs, which had taken the Germans long before from southern Russia. Here, the artists joined Roman braid belts, which they on the floors of Roman villas ?? s in Northern Europe saw, Roman architectural motifs and sometimes human figures which were also derived from the Greco-Roman culture.
By making them very refined decorating, particular care was given to the gospel books because these books were seen as a symbol of Christ. Thus they made it even ornate shrines. Furthermore, gold making such complex images as an ascetic exercise patience for monks. Soon also took the Franks, Visigoths and Lombards ?? inhabitants of present-day France, Spain and northern Italy - the aforementioned themes from the north on.
This period of about two centuries by historians often with the term ?? the dark ages ?? called because, except manuscript decorations, still little is known. It must have been a turbulent period with lots of wandering peoples and numerous small wars. Only in the ninth century, there will be a stabilization in Northwest Europe under the leadership of the ambitious king and later emperor, Charlemagne.