The end of ETA? Beginning of the Basque independence?

Miscellaneous lolonims5777 December 9, 2016 0 3
On October 20, 2011 left the Basque separatist group ETA that it definitively lays down arms. This would put an end to one of the ultimate consequences of the Franco dictatorship in Spain. Many Basques now look with hope to the future. The Basque history, as it is known to us, goes back no further than to the 1st century BC In it, the Basques opposed the Roman occupation and they protected their territory against advancing Romanization. Between the 3rd and the 5th century they need to Christianity. By the time of the Great Migration scattered the people over the Pyrenees and the French Aquitaine. In the Middle Ages the Basque region was, however, more and more reduced and eventually divided between the kingdoms of Spain and Franksijk.

"The Basque case '

A conscious Basque nationalism, however, had not its origin in the 19th century with the creation of the 'Partido Nacionalista Vasco' in 1895. The founder, Sabino Arana, also allowed if the person is considered to terms like 'Euskadi' introceerde which the Basque Country is identified , and 'Euskera'. He also designed the Basque country of the flag, the so called. "Ikurriña ', originally as the flag of the party.
Arana was the first, called the "land of the Basques' would indicate. According to him, revealing to the Spanish side from Vizcaya, Guipúzcoa, Spanish-Araba and Navarra and in France from Soule, Labourd and French Navarre. What is also striking about the first ideas of the PNV is how reactionary and religious politics were. They were certainly not free from racism. Arana example, proclaimed that the Basques, like authentic people were superior to the Spaniards. That Basques are different is also proven. They speak a language that is not Indo-European, and many have the very rare negative Rhesus factor in their blood. But Arana pointed especially to the deep faith of the Basques, because this type of Basque nationalism in the thirties of the 19th century under the strictly religious and traditional rural population was much resonance.
Still the PNV is the most important movement in the Basque nationalism. Until the sixties, it was even the only major Basque nationalist movement. During the current democracy, she has dominated for years the political panorama in the Basque Country. At present she is temporarily sidelined because the Social Democratic Party, the PSOE and the conservative partijd, PP, together managed to find a majority.

The establishment of ETA

When the Basque Country during the Spanish civil war was entirely in the hands of the rebels instances week the currently autonomous government PNV-first out to the relatively Spain and after the end of the war in 1939 to Paris. However, the government in exile was unable to support the Basque in the Basque Country against the murderous repression of the dictatorship. Strong dissatisfaction about was soon reflected in the creation of the ETA. It is striking that this happened on July 31, 1959, the same day that the PNV was founded, but exactly 64 years earlier.
Initially ETA hardly use violence: in 1961 there was only one failed attempt to derail a train. Until the late sixties would not be too much happening. But in the harsh climate of the last years of the Franco regime was the radical branch of ETA increasingly arguments. In 1968 was the first attack by ETA on a head of the secret police in San Sebastian. Famous mainly on admiral Luis Carrero Blanco on December 20th, 1973, designated as successor to Franco, this in retaliation for the execution of Basque separatists. From this fact is later made into a film.

After the death of the dictator

After Franco's death came in 1977 for the first time free elections in Spain. In December 1978 a new constitution was produced, which was adopted by a referendum. In this new constitution were the unity of the Spanish nation and the right to autonomy of the regions that make up Spain as a country, stressed. Also Basque Country would of course have their own government, and with broader powers than ever before any regional government had in the area. Since 1982, the 'Comunidad Autónoma del País Vasco ", the autonomous Basque Country, therefore, its own government and parliament.
Despite the violent activities of ETA were there after the death of Franco and the regained democracy, not less. The fact that the aforementioned referendum 53% of the Basques abstained and the acceptance of the Statute of Autonomy 40% gave the movement a good argument to remain entitled to its own Basque state. During the 80s, the first years of the new Spanish democracy, for example, with 180 victims ETA was particularly active. In 1989 there was a bomb attack by ETA at the Spanish Embassy in The Hague.
On March 22, 2006 announced the movement, increasingly into a corner, a truce, this with the intention to launch a new democratic process in the Basque Country. However, on December 30, 2006 would be already broken again with an attack in the car park of the new terminal at Barajas airport in Madrid. In addition, there were two deaths and was also very much damage.
Meanwhile, the ETA itself was becoming worse. On several occasions, the entire top of the organization were arrested and are certain cells that were trying to be surgically eliminated. The former political arm of ETA, Batasuna was declared illegal. The Spanish Government claims since a long time that the military wing of ETA has been weakened so that it will be only a matter of time that they will lay down their arms. On 10 January 2011 ETA announced a permanent cease-fire "down, but without definitively to lay down their arms, where the government and also requested by many Basques around. A few days before the expiry of the notice of the laying down of arms by ETA, there were some well-known figures from international politics, as Kofi Annan, Jimmy Carter and Tony Blair, who indicated that this was the moment. So everyone hopes it really be true and that peace in the Basque Country this will be a reality. Meanwhile, the new political arm of ETA, Bildu, already plotted her lines.