The Roman worldview held in:
- Roman scholars took the worldview of the Greeks. But for many Romans, the earth was a flat disk floating in the universe. They have assumed that at the bottom side of the disc ?? antipodes ?? were living, in order to keep the disc in equilibrium.
- The Roman world map was a reflection of this world: the known world was presented as a circular on the east oriented disk.
How developed the Roman image of man himself?
The Roman humanity was strongly influenced by the Greeks. For example, were the Greek mythology, but also adopted the Greek science. But the Romans and more practical view of man than the Greeks.
What is characteristic of the man in the Roman Empire?
- A more practical view of human nature.
- A military look more human than the Greeks.
- Unequal relationship between men and women.
- A partially own architecture.
- A legal exemplary way to deal with each other.
- Man was under the Romans first of a citizen with rights and duties. They therefore gave much attention to the writing down of laws. In Roman cities also included the courthouses, basilicae, the important buildings.
- It was the Romans to improve the quality of daily life, not great philosophical problems. Therefore, the Romans tried to use nature to make life easier and they built large baths.
A military look more human than the Greeks.
- The Romans had a partially different value system. Values in wars of great importance, such as courage, obedience, sacrifice for the sake of the fatherland, were held in high esteem.
- The amphitheater was central struggle. Other typical for Roman monuments like the triumphal arch and the Victory Column are military ?? ?? monuments.
Unequal relationship between men and women.
- In marriage contracts were recorded various forms of marriage. For each woman was subordinate to men.
- In marriage, men were allowed to punish their wives for adultery. Men were not criminalize adultery.
- Divorce was only possible for the man and very simple: the contract could be terminated if the dowry was returned.
A partially own architecture.
The most important Roman buildings are not with religion but to make practical and military view of man.
Examples of own construction:
- The Roman theater was not, as the Greek, embedded in a hill but was a freestanding structure.
- The Greek temples were directionless ?? ??: there was no difference between front and rear. The Roman had the difference though. At the front was the entrance and the porch, surrounded by freestanding columns. The rest of the temple had only half columns, me ?? flat side ?? were built against the outer wall and had to support it. Greek temple on the other hand was completely surrounded by freestanding columns.
- Also developed typical Roman forms like the arch, the vault and the dome. Typical realizations of Roman architecture are the triumphal arches, baths and amphitheatres.
- New structural funds have created the ability to span large spaces. Columns and buttresses were superfluous.
A legal exemplary way to deal with each other.
The Romans conquered an empire that lived very different peoples. An important reason why those nations appreciated the Roman government, was the Roman law. The Romans formulated rules that were unique for their time.
Important rules of the Romans:
- A person is innocent until proved guilty
- Someone who has been accused of something, should have the opportunity to defend themselves
- No one should be punished for what he thinks.
- The directors of a country is not allowed to interfere with the case that only the judges.