Why do we watch television? What is violence? What theories exist about television and violence? Which children are prone to TV violence? Which programs ?? s have the most influence? What are the effects of TV violence? How does the environment and what measures are taken to TV violence? The youth along with adults aged 55 and older population that watch the most TV. Among the youth means here children from 12 to 17 years. During this phase, the young very impressionable, because itself takes place reorientation of identity. Children also make up to the age of six years their personality. In view of the above facts, for example the development of increasingly coarse videos and more violence on TV worrisome. About made leader Bos, van Aartsen and MP Atsma also busy during a campaign for the municipal elections. The fact that children of 12 ?? 18 years more and more themselves determine what they do to watch on TV than two cents and family, 2004).
Persegani Russo Carucci, Nicolini, Papeschi and Trimarchi spent watching personality associated with tv. Watching shocking TV images were more associated with children with high levels of extraversion, consistent and emotional instability. A high level of emotional instability, low level of understanding and open to experience and awareness was also associated with longer watch TV. This proves a relationship between personality and TV habits.
Grimm also examined the links between personality and TV images and came to three dressings. The first link shows that personality traits like anxiety, aggressiveness and external locus of control ?? ?? accompanied by the attraction of horror movies. Second, viewers of action films characterized by anxiety, aggression and internal locus of control ?? ??. And finally watching the news goes along with fear, empathetic anxiety, inhibition of aggression and ?? scary-world-views ??. Several violent program ?? s therefore go along with different personality profiles.
Finally, a study of Gunter and Furnham neurotic respondents violent scenes seriously conceiving than less neurotic respondents.
This proves that if one TV violence is to investigate one of the personality ?? TV viewer ?? it should take as an explanatory factor.
The intelligence level of parents appears to have an impact on TV, children with highly educated parents read of more and watch less TV than children from families with low educated parents.
If we look at the effects of television on to examine the youth, one must also have a good image in the background, the younger TV. This research was conducted by Verma and Larson for the Indian youth. The study found that 73% of TV viewing by these young people took place in the presence of a family member. Watch TV seems to them so a way to forget the stress of the day and share this with family members.
For children watch TV so different functions, Van der Voort mentions four: entertainment, information, socialization and escape. While watching TV watching during childhood and adolescence is not good for health because it is linked with obesity, poor fitness, smoking and elevated cholesterol in adulthood.
For TV violence, it is useful to make this distinction, real and fictional violence. Real violence you encounter in news, current affairs and sports. Fictional violence is seen comical cartoons, slapstick, police series, detective series and war films. However, in the last three examples difference between fictional and real very small, since war 51 years ago, it was real and now further from home is.
From the reduction theory, it is reasoned that the seeing violent images leads to a reduction of the aggression to the viewer. Within the reduction theories have to make it a three-way division, namely the catharsis hypothesis, empathy hypothesis and the attention shift hypothesis.
The catharsis hypothesis states that seeing aggressive behavior temporarily will reduce the willingness to aggression. So when one sees others acting aggressively, this would have an aggression-reducing effect. Feshbach, however, indicates that this applies only to viewers who are angry in advance.
Empathy hypothesis states that seeing aggressive images leads to less aggression when one experiences the images as tasteless. A study by Hartman proves that seeing the painful consequences of aggression has a reducing effect, while a study by Baron et al shows that just seeing the suffering of the victim leads to a strengthening aggression.
And finally the attention shift hypothesis herein claims that violent movies are angry viewers who derive their anger. Several kinds of films have this effect, as well as comedy films because they change the meaning of aggressive images.
Seeing violent images leads according to this theory just to imitate and strengthen aggression. Again can be divided this theory in various hypotheses, which is the basic activation hypothesis, the two factors theory, association hypothesis, desensitisatiehypothese, aanstekelijkheidhypothese and observational learning theory.
In the elementary activation hypothesis physiological activation plays an important role. If one violence on TV looks like a physical, emotional reaction takes place which causes accelerated heart rate and perspiration. This is according to Tannenbaum & Zillmann by the arousal that evokes a movie, this arousal remains after seeing film also. Everything is done so after the film is intense. So a violent film reinforces aggression when the possibility exists to aggressive behavior and it is enjoyed here.
However, the elementary activation hypothesis does not always, the two factors theory in this case serves as a corrective model. There are in fact two factors distinguish this theory, physiological activation and ability to aggression. A film promotes this theory only when these two factors are present and they already felt angry.
The association hypothesis is based on two conditions, namely a rise and the viewer must see the connection between violence on television and its target on the other. The content of the series / movie on tv is so important, once seen on TV, one can repeat the action in his own environment.
The fourth hypothesis comes from the treatment of fears and phobias, the desensitisatiehypothese. This hypothesis is still too little explored because one can argue both ways. Firstly, with repeated exposure to violence on television the emotional reaction to the violence are less strong, so they are encouraged in his / her aggression. However, one can also argue exactly the other way by saying that the arousal over time becomes less and less, so also tend to aggression.
Van der Voort gives two explanations, namely the saturation effect and cognitive explanation. When saturation effect stimuli gradually lose their effect. When given cognitive account the aggressive images less and less meaning, which is very aggressive and less experienced. This makes it also develops a preference for violent programs ?? s.
When we talk about behavior, we mean the infection aanstekelijkheidhypothese. A TV program can thus unknowingly and very contagious. It does not have to be that this aggression is also effectively.
And finally, the observational learning theory of Bandura, this theory is part of the social learning theory. And provides an explanation for the long-term effects. The social learning theory assume people learn through experience and observation of other people. As you look at TV violence, it will imitate this in reality. The same theory also indicates the importance of punishing aggressive behavior.
No effect theory
Violence Images have no effect on the aggressiveness of the viewer, according to this theory. There are two hypotheses established Kaplan and Singer, one originating from field research and experiments which prove that violence on TV has no effect and another that claims that subjects in the stimulation hypothesis of advance already were angry as this however was not the case, did sight the simulation does not occur. TV has no effect on the occurrence of violence.
Less affluent families appear to have more video game consoles and more to look at commercial stations than families in which the parents are better educated. Children from environments with a high SES are thus more rapidly into contact with media having a high degree of reality, while children from low SES environment more come into contact with media having a high content fantasy.
Parents who use physical violence can pass it on to their children. Children are thus taught that violence is and is not really because everybody uses it. If these children again see violence on television are their fixed idea about violence.
The likelihood of aggressive stimulation is obviously greater for children who watch a lot of television, but not to feel so bored. This proves the importance of offside activities with friends.
Factors in the child
The likelihood of aggressive stimulation is greater if a child has a special preference for violent films is like to watch violent scenes and approves it, not violent actions are anxious strongly to identify the aggressive hero has a limited intelligence. So mainly young children. To 6 years, children are namely not aware of the consequences of violence, they like to imitate their heroes and they do not know that they can hurt others. Older children view violence namely from different perspectives and thus better oversee the consequences.
It also applies especially for boys. Indeed, they are more interested in violent program ?? s, can identify with more male heroes and they have fewer inhibitions regarding violence because violence is more socially accepted by boys than girls. A study by Miller and Reeves found that 70% of 200 8-11 year olds called a television figure, when they were asked, who would you want to be.
Among children of limited intelligence is meant children who do not know the difference between fantasy and reality. Until the age of six they have difficulties with this, but today reality and fiction always difficult to distinguish because of technical gadgets. Deboutte declares that it stands can only be made in 10 to 12 years of age.
Children's heroes are strong, powerful and smart. Children want to identify themselves and thus he / she can best use force to combat evil.
Through the experiments of Bandura was shown that viewers take on aggressive behavior of the TV and the violence is energized than when it is penalized. The violence on TV often energized by the hero often ends with wealth, power and admiration.
Research by Berkowitz, Corwin and Heironimus showed that if the main characters ?? good guys ?? there are on the loose may strike viewers accept this rather than when the main characters are bad guys. The children justify violence and this raises a bigger aggression.
Valkenburg cites violence then the consequences for the victim are not painful ?? happy ?? violence. Through this violence, but children may get a distorts picture of the consequences of violence. It is the intention to remind children that it is wrong doing violence to others, by showing it on TV calling the children a pity. So one has to show the consequences, took the aggression out.
As a film or program is realistic, taking the stimulation effects of these images and are seen as seriously. Violent films therefore have more effect on aggression or violent cartoons.
Exciting violent images evoke more aggression in accordance with the activation theories, so serials and films in which violence is combined with loud music and lots of action evoke more aggressive on that program who do not have these issues.
The program Power Rangers was about 10 years ago a controversial children's program. Research has shown that children seven times showed more aggression after watching episode of the children's series. The Power Rangers are five teeners of different nationalities who live a normal life, they go to school, do homework, etc. Until intergalactic beings try to conquer the earth. Then change the teeners five Power Rangers as with karate and special powers to defeat the space-monsters. They always win every series and looks the same. But the dangers of the program ?? s sit in the 200 acts of violence per hour and the reality of the program. They are no longer animated characters which occasionally violent, such as the Ninja Turtles with 100 operations per hour.
However, there can be mentioned positive aspects of the program, namely the various ethnicities of the main characters, they personify the good, quintet consists of both sexes, they are wearing an anti-drug message out, represented family values and be politically correct.
Another example of a very violent programs are programs ?? s ?? s coming from the World Wrestling Federation. This wrestling and boxing program ?? s by 35 million viewers in the United States. DuRant doing here in the early 90th years of research and found that this program ?? s were accompanied by increased consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and drugs, fights and violation during ?? dates ?? and possession of weapons. A similar kind of study was conducted by an Israeli researcher Lemish. He found that children who watched these programs ?? s were more violent at school. In the event that they had been exposed to violence, were more likely they were imitating behavior they had seen on television. For children aged 7 ?? 12 years, making it difficult to distinguish between the fact staged battle scenes and their idea about it. These studies put the Israeli parliament thinking. This allows a station stopped broadcasting the program and moved another station program to an hour later.
First, one might look at the short term effects of TV violence on behavior. Violent movies are practical and in which children imitate the aggressive behavior, show less social behavior, are less prone to behaviors such as sharing, helping and working together and become impatient
Nightmares or sleep disorders can also scale under short-term effects. If the kids get the TV images could not process the child's brain stay stimulated which can not relax. According to Van der Voort parents also play a big role, namely parents know quite where the boundaries lie for their children. They can also detect this by looking at the child during the violent images, namely the child turns his head away or turn the hands to the eyes, the images for the child are terrifying. Research also shows that sleep is the biggest objector against TV violence, children are frightened and the rest will then be disrupted.
Secondly, one can speak about emotional effects, namely children can develop a sense of insecurity and may be less prone to violence. Because children after seeing TV violence develop a certain panic, they get a feeling unsafe, the nightmares are a direct consequence of this.
Research shows that less developed physiological activity after repeatedly seeing the same scenes of violence One gets used so the violence. However, this was not the case when they showed new images of violence. Research by Thomas Horton, Lippincott and Drabman proved there is a desensitization of old and new images to act, this really is not yet proven that children are also less sensitive to violence in their own environment.
And third, cognitive effects on those periods no influence.
In the field of behavioral effects may be that children will show more aggressive behavior. This may even escalate into criminal behavior. Especially when children are in a small circle of friends, friends can affect each other enormously. If young people are sucked herein increases the chances of this aggression.
From long-term, from 1983 to 2000, research by Columbia University psychiatrist Johnson, Cohen and Smailes revealed a clear link between TV viewing and violent behavior. Even after filtering out things such as child neglect, unsafe home environment, low income and low income level, the connection remains. The relationship was found in boys than in girls more clearly. This research I especially unique because it is long-term and also explores youth, while previously mainly children were examined.
The younger will generally be less kind to his surroundings, more gossip, threats, offensive behavior and close friends outside of show and are of creativity and imagination can be affected. Children who are in fact often the tube, less creative and imaginative
On the emotional level, there will be an increased level of anxiety. And long term, children / young people to feel unsafe. Whereby the will according Deboutte vote for far-right parties. Moreover numbing sets for violence that already occurred in the short term, continued.
The long-term cognitive area include the distorted picture that the child / young person has of reality. However condition for this is, however, that children notice the images, process and remember. At right angles to this are the conclusions of Huesmann, in this study, namely claiming that in the long term there is no or only a very limited effect of TV violence.
Although media 5-10% of explaining differences in aggression, explaining family, school, personality and environment still another 90-95% as set Cecilia von Felitzen of the Stockholm University.
So the environment of children may be a protective factor. For example, consider a parent who disapproves of aggression but there together with the child watching violent TV programs or boyfriends who ?? s not like it.
In America, parents are increasingly realizing that they have to put the viewing habits of their children restrained. Over 72% of children under 12 have a limit on the ?? TV viewing ?? time, while this percentage in 1994 was 63%. This development can be related to the TV-Turnoff Week, which saw the light in 1994. In April 2007 this week has been around for 13 years. The positive development of this is that children will read more in the time they are not allowed to watch television and increased performance ?? ?? Developing IQ.
Parents can choose their children or paying for watching violent programs before. But the difference with them'gewoon' us look at it, the watch of the parents, discuss and form opinions about what they see at that moment. This is much more effective than authoritarian ban this program ?? s watch. The viewing time to determine and make use of the VCR can be determined by the parents.
School can also have a good effect according Gielen et al. And McFelaan. They can pay systematic attention to great programs ?? s instead of adopting bad off, mass media education to include in the curriculum, discuss with parents about the consequences and TV violence to include in the social-emotional development. Research by Rosenkoetter, Rosenkoetter, Ozretich and Acock indeed show that after 31 lessons on television and violence, children watched less violent TV programs ?? s and identified themselves less with violent TV characters.
However, the television channels may also limit the impact of TV violence, the Flemish Radio and Television does a behavior code. If one still violent program to broadcast applications this usually happens after 23.00, the presenter announces it and you will see a logo on the screen. This logo indicates the viewers that there is sex, violence or suggestive dialogue in the prevention program. In the Netherlands we know it under the name: Rating. All logos ?? s used by the viewing are shown below:
8 years ago also flared up a discussion about the V-chip, a chip which gives ?? s black image in violent program. This chip is still not implemented but America's working on it. Since the idea was stopped by the television, they complained about the way ?? censuur'. In the Netherlands the time being not yet on the market, because agreements have not yet been made at the international level with Philips.
What about the influence of TV on children abroad? Italy and Denmark will serve as an example.
In Italy have signed the public broadcaster and the most prominent commercial broadcasters in 1997 an agreement in order to protect children against the negative effects of watching television. The agreement contains a prohibition of unsuitable children ?? s between 16 and 19 hours and limiting sex and violence between 19 and 22 hours. The agreement was a direct response to two affairs in the news that caused much unrest. As a result, at the times indicated no interviews with children that aired in crisis, no runaways from home, victims of crime, prostitution and pedophilia.
In Denmark it is still beyond addressing television violence, here they ?? advertising-free periods ?? introduced. This follows from Sweden and Norway, where sponsored children ?? s are forbidden. Children are in accordance with the Danish Minister of Culture, Nielsen kneaded to materialistic persons.
Children with special preference for violent programs ?? s, violent scenes are fun, approving, not be afraid of it, identify with the hero and limited intelligence are more susceptible to violent programs ?? s.
Not only children have characteristics that influence violence can be increased, but also the program ?? s itself. For example, programs with attractive ?? s main characters, rewarded violence, justified violence, violence in which the painful consequences are not visible, realistic violence and inciting violence scenes an increased chance to affect the child.
The effects of TV violence has been much research, the effects can be divided into the categories of behavior, sensation and cognition. These categories can be found both in the short and the long term. Research showed that 5-10% of the differences in aggression declared by the media. This means not only television but also radio, newspaper and internet. To reduce this influence is not only an approach to the TV needed. Moreover, parents and schools can also reduce the effect.
Violence on television